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Unification of Italy
Transcript of Unification of Italy
Unification of Italy:
Italian states were under Austria, the Roman Catholic Church, and France control.
They mainly wanted independence and were not able to governed their own country.
Italy had finally became an actual "Country."
Secret societies were formed to drive out the foreign rulers
Was not free of foreign rule
Had a monarchy system
Revolution was mainly because of starvation, food expenses and high taxes.
King Louis XVI made economy in chaos; he was too busy supporting the American War which was costly.
Commoners were not able to be involved about any government business.
France was under its own control
Rise of Revolutions
In 1852, Camillo di Cavour became prime minister of Piedmont (Kingdom of Sardinia)
Italian resistance wanted to drive Austria out of Italy, Cavour was persuaded that to drive Austria out of Italy he needed a strong ally, the leader of France, Napoleon III
In 1859, Cavour provoked Austria and war broke out between Piedmont and Austria
Cavour's plan was a success and France and Piedmont ended up winning against Austria
Piedmont received Lombardy from Austria as a result of the war
Founded: March 17, 1861
Located: In southern part of Europe
Before becoming 'Italy', originally consisted of city-states
After the Congress of Vienna, Italian states were controlled by Austria, the Roman Catholic Church, and France
The Native Italian Royal house only controlled Sardinia out of all Italian states
Risorgimento (Unification of Italy): An act to unite Italy as a whole
Unification of Italy
The Roman Republic
Created by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini
In 1848, King Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) went to Lombardy to help fight for Italians to gain freedom from Austrian Rule
Some revolutions were successful but eventually failed
In 1849, troops were sent to Rome to destroyed the Roman Republic by France
Austria won against Piedmont
King Charles Albert's son, Victor Emanuel II became King
Kingdom of Italy
In 1860, the Garibaldi Red Shirts were a tremendous success, they took over the Kingdom of Two Sicilies in 2 months
In 1861, Garibaldi and Victor Emanuel II united together which created the Kingdom of Italy
Victor Emanuel II was the first King of Italy
However it was tough to takeover Rome and Venetia, if Rome was attacked, France and Austria would have to help the Pope and Venetia is controlled by Austria
In 1866, the Seven Weeks' War occured between Austria and Prussia
Italy joined Prussia and as a result they won and got Venetia
In 1870, Rome voted to join the union and later on became the Capital
Book: Century of Change Europe from 1789-1918 by E. Alyn Mitchner & R. Joanne Tuffs
Textbook - Exploring Nationalism
By Vivian Dang & Lyna Tran
Italians wanted rights which led secret societies to form
Giuseppe Mazzini joined the Carbonari Society, but he wanted more than just rights, he wanted Italy to become free of foreign rule
By 1820, Carbonari Society attempted numerous revolutions but all failed
In 1831, in order to promote unification, Mazzini created a group called 'Young Italy' to help promote a free and united republic of Italy
Camillo di Cavour
French Rev Cont'd
600 members of the Third Estate united together and declaring themselves the national assembly.
While Louis XVI was demanding that people should pay more taxes, the country was suffering severe weather.
Riots around the country occurred because of starvation, food expenses too high, high taxes.
Revolutions started rising, help people turn toward new ideas about nation.
Many french royalties or people who supported the King had fled the country and went to neighboring countries.
Reign of Terror: Revolutionary leaders began a crackdown.
In 1799, Napleon Bonaparte emerged as a leader who united French and brought order to the country.
Napleon Bonaparte tried conquering most of Europe and created numerous of wars and was later defeated
The French Revolution started in 1789 and it lasted for 10 years.
Had a absolute rule which provided the commoners not to have any right to be involved with the government.
In 1783-1788, France was mainly facing financial crisis due to the fact that the french government supporting the American Revolution and also participating in the Seven Years' War, the country was in heavily in debt.
600 angry Parisians attacked the Bastille and took controlled
The Estate General consisted 3 Estates: First Estate-Clergy, Second Estate-Aristocrats and Third Estate- commoners.
There were unfair taxation, the higher estates took advantage and abused their powers and refused to contribute any tax revenue to the French government.
The third estate ended up paying 70% of taxes
Both revolution/unification were very different to each other so there were not a lot of similarities
Both countries rebel and cause riots
United as a nation