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Ancient China

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Clara C

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of Ancient China

The Great Wall is a very popular tourist attraction to this day.
This is the Silk Road roots
Ancient
China

By Clara, Toni, Dante, Luca, Lorenzo and Michael F.
Culture
Family Life
Clothing
Language
Arts (music, dance, art, language/writing)
Religion
Ceremonies
Technologies
Government
Geography
Located in East Asia
the Himalaya Mountains are on the southern border
Tian Shan "heavenly mountains' are to the West
East China Sea to the East
Gobi Desert to the North
Huang (Yellow) River runs through the North
Zi (Yangzi) River runs through it to the South
Family Life
Life as a Farmer
Ceremonies
Arts~Dance
Ribbon Dance
Clothing
The rich and the poor dressed very differently. the rich would wear robes made of silk while the others would wear hemp garments.
They also considered fans as a very important item in their clothing
They always dressed very formal
They wore elaborated hair ornaments made of gold, jade, silver, etc.
They wore shoes made of silk
They wore a lot of jewelry including bracelets, anklets, necklaces, and nail guards
Arts
Calligraphy
Art of handwriting
Considered important
Over 40,000 characters
Must be written in specific order
Arts


Music
During the Tang Dynasty, dancing and singing entered the mainstream, spreading from the royal court to the common people
They can be divided into four categories: stringed instruments, percussion instruments, plucked instruments, and wind instruments
Besides these types, Chinese peasants were clever enough to compose folk songs, which also developed independently with local flavor

Drama/Theater
In the early centuries AD play scripts were written
In the beginning they were based on an oral story-telling tradition and didactic Buddhist stories
These archaic “dramas” heralded the rich tradition of Chinese drama literature with its heydays in the Yuan dynasty

Most people were farmers
They were respected because they provided food
They led hard, difficult lives
They used plows
They used oxen to pull plows, but they still did most of the work by hand
The father always ruled the house, so everyone had to obey him
The mothers took care of the home and children
Everyone had to respect the elders(pray to them, etc.)
Three generations would live in one house
Tea became important in the second century
Only wealthy boys could hire teachers to teach they calligraphy, poetry, and important skills to become officials and nobles
Family Life
Economy
Environment
Climate
A Farming Tool
Paper

*Paper may have been one of China's greatest inventions.
*Making the paper was a five step process
*And with making paper came printing
Steps to making paper:
1.Cutting reeds and soaking them.
2.Mashing the pulp.
3.Heating the pulp.
4.Pounding the pulp
5.Streching and drying the paper.
Start in the Han Dynasty (206 BC)
Began with dancers holding silk ribbons
Tong Dynasty the ribbon became longer and attached on stick
Performed for royalty accompanied with music
Ribbons can be any colour (red the most poplar)
Fan Dance
Chinese Fan Dancers
Fan made of Silk
Began as ceremonial rituals
The fan originally used as shelter for sun and blowing sand
There are many types of fans(folding ones, feather, silk,etc.)
China later sold them to Japan and Europe
is home to long rivers, high plateaus, dry deserts and rugged mountains
dangerous deserts keep foreigners out
Gobi desert is 5th largest desert in the world
China is very dry because of "rain shadow effect" *
There are some low plains suitable for civilization
the plain found along Huang River has rich soil for farming due to flooding from the river
Heavy rains and snow melt feed to large river systems
Most of China is humid subtropical climate
East Asia experiences percipitation due to monsoon winds
South Asia experiences monsoons that bring heavy rain in summer and dry winters
China temperatures vary throughout the year
Resources
There were many technologies that help China rise to the top of the civilization world. Some of the inventions we use today like acupuncture and gunpowder.

* Fireworks and Rockets/Gunpowder
* The Wheelbarrow
* Compass
*Acupuncture
*Great Wall of China
*Paper
*Silk Road
*The Chinese were the first people to create the correct formula for gunpowder

*After they had the correct formula for gunpowder they created the rocket witch later created fire works

*When the terracotta warriors started using the rocket launcher as a weapon it gave them a great edge over there enemies witch the emperor very much enjoyed.
Ancient Chinese Clothes
Ancient Chinese nail guards
Ancient Chinese silk shoes
Poetry
All educated people had to write poetry
In the Tang Dynasty, poetry became important for people to become civil workers
Painting

Inspired by poetry
Paintings featured mountains, homes, birds, trees, and water
Porcelain
Used for art and export
In the Ming Dynasty they sold blue and white vases to the wealthy in Europe and Japan
Silk
Made silk from cocoons of silkworms and kept a secret for thousands of years so China could be rich
They would dye the silk into colours and different patterns
silk fabric
Religion
Wedding Steps:
1. Tea Ceremony
2. Dinner banquet after wedding

Tea Ceremony
On the wedding day the bride serves tea to her parents to show how much she loves and cares about them
The tea to the grooms parents includes lotus seeds and red dates to say they will be having kids soon
The newlyweds kneel in front of thier parents when they serve the tea
Grooms parents return red envelopes to the newlyweds usually contains money or jewelry
Groom will kneel in front of his mother and the bride will kneel in front of the Grooms dad

The highlight of the banquet is the newly weds and their family's make a toast congratulating the new couple
The path of toast starts with the left and then goes to the right
Tradition is the groom carries the bride to all the tables this symbolizes the promise to take care of her for the rest of her life
Gunpowder/rocket and fireworks
These are some of the foods they would eat
Chinese Ribbon dancers
Food
they ate many grains such as rice
they drank green tea
they also ate cucumbers, bok choy, oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots and ginger
only the rich could afford to eat meat because it was a luxury in Ancient China
people in China used chopsticks because it was convenient and inexpensive
grains of uncooked rice
ginger
a pair of chopsticks
Chinese tea
Ancient Chinese calligraphy
Ancient Chinese Painting
Ancient Chinese Procelain
Silk Worm cocoons
Three major religions or philosophies shaped many of the ideas and history of Ancient China. They are called the three ways and included Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.
Taoism
Founded during the Zhou Dynasty in the 6th century by Lao-Tzu
He wrote down his beliefs and philosophy in a book called the Tao Te Ching
Taoism believes that people should be one with nature and that all living things have a universal force flowing through them
Didn't believe in a lot of rules or government
The idea of Yin and Yang comes from Taoism
They believed that everything in nature has two balancing forces called the Yin and the Yang
Confucianism
Confucius was born in 551 BC
Confucius was a philosopher
Confucius came up with ways that people should behave and live
He didn't write these down, but his followers did
Confucius' teachings focus on treating others with respect, politeness, and fairness
He thought that honor and morality were important qualities
He also said that family was important and honoring one's relatives was required
Followers of Confucius believed in a strong organized government
Buddhism
Buddhism was based on the teachings of Buddha
Buddha was born in south of China, in 563 BC
Buddhism spread throughout much of India and China
Buddhists believe in a "rebirth" of them self
They also believe that the cycle of rebirth is complete once a person lives a proper life
Buddhists also believe in a concept called Karma
Karma says that all actions have consequences
Buddha
Confucius
Original Copy of Tao Te Ching
Lao-Tzu was the founder of Taoism
The Ying Yang came from Taoism


Language/ Writing
People in China began writing about 1500 BC, more than a thousand years later than people in West Asia or Egypt, but earlier than anyone in Europe, Africa, or Central America
The signs they used came from pictures, like earlier Egyptian hieroglyphs or Sumerian cuneiform
People in early China also wrote on strips of bamboo wood
Around 100 BC, people in China invented paper to write on
During the Tang Dynasty, about 700 AD, people in China invented wood-block printing, which was easier than copying out books by hand and made books much cheaper than they had been before
Soon afterward, during the Sung Dynasty, about 1000 AD, people invented movable clay type, and this made books even cheaper and more popular than before
The writing was written from right to left, top to bottom, and in columns
Ancient Chinese writing and its transformation
Bamboo strips were used as "paper" in Ancient China
Woodblock Printing
Ancient Chinese Instruments
Ancient Chinese Couple
Silk is one of the most important products in China
The Xia people used bronze for weapons
Clay was used to make pottery
Chinese started to farm rice and raise chicken and sheep
Currency
Warfare
Government Type
Laws
Hierarchy/ Social Structure
Government Type
Law
Hierarchy/ Social Structures
Warfare
Government was a monarchy
The emperor ruled over all of the people
The job of the emperor was called the 'mandate of heaven'
There were 4 main dynasties
People did not have a voice in how the country was run
Ancient China's Social structure was like a ladder with emperor at the top, then civil servants, then peasants, then merchants, and then servants and soldiers
each person on the ladder had important roles to do
The people had strict rules and were expected to act according to their position
Trade of Goods
The Romans wanted the chinese silk, in return they offered horses, gold, jade, ivory, furs, glass, metals, and muslin
The ancient chinese eventually got tempted and trade began between the west and the east
Across thousands of miles of mountain, deserts, plain, traders led camel caravans loaded with precious goods
These trade links between the settlements eventually grew into a chain joining the East and the west called the Silk Road
Because the route was so long traders ussually worked only one section of the route
The emperor sitting in his throne, controlling all of the people
Emperor
The emperor had power over all of the people
He had wealth and authority
He collected taxes from his subjects
Civil Servants
were like government officials
collected taxes
enforced laws
Peasants
Were farmers
Considered important because they gave food to the people of ancient China
Ancient China's backbone
Merchants
Got money from trading goods
Less respected because of old Chinese belief
Soldiers and Servants
Were servants to the emperor
Got little money for their work
Least respected
Citizens fighting to overthrow the emperor
emperor sitting on throne ruling over the people
Civil servants collecting taxes
Peasants (farmers) picking crops
Merchants selling their goods
Soldier ready for war
Servant of the emperor
Laws were strict and harsh
People had severe punishments if they broke a law
Discriminated against woman
Beatings were considered mild punishments
People had no second chance
A man being beheaded in public
Compass
The Chinese beat, tortured, and killed people who didn't follow the law
*The compass was invented by the chinese people around the 4th century BC.

*The compass was not really used to navigate of find your way it was used figuratively.

*The chinese built the compass out of lodestone.

*The chinese people used the compass to harmonize there environments and lives.
Wheelbarrow

*A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle

*The wheelbarrow has one wheel and the front

*It was designed to be pushed by a single person

* The wheelbarrow was used especially in farming and later on construction
Modern day wheelbarrow
Chinese farming wheelbarrow
Silk Road

*It was called the Silk Road because one of the major products traded was silk cloth from China

*The chinese also traded/sold tea, salt, sugar, and spices.

*Merchants and tradesmen traveled in large caravans. Camels were popular later because there were rough and dry roads

*The Chinese people took there silk mainly to India, the middle east and Europe
-Trade of Goods
-Natural Resources
-Currency
Acupuncture
Terracotta Soldiers
*Acupuncture was used to relieve pain and even rage conditions.

*Acupuncture was used by inserting fine needles into the area of pain

*The oldest record of acupuncture is 1600BC
4000 years ago! We still use this same method today.

*Doctors knew exactly were to place there needles in the right place on the patients.
ACUPUNCTURE
Great Wall of China
*The Great Wall of China was built to protect China's Northern boarder for any invading tribes.

*It took 30,000 men to build the wall.

*The wall was between 5m-10m high and 5m wide.

*Watch-towers are located every 90-180m along the wall.


Most significant discovery of the 20th century
Made by the first emperor
Replicas of what China's imperial guard would have been like
The life size soldiers are arranged in battle formation
There are about 7000 clay soldiers each with different face
Ancient Chinese Brushes for Calligraphy
Weapons
Red Envelopes
This is a tea set they would use
Dinner banquet after wedding
An Ancient Chinese Family
Lotus seeds
Red dates
Terracotta soldiers in museum
Ancient China has developed many masterpieces of weaponry
They used 5 main weapons
These were the jian (sword), the gong (bow and arrow), the qiang (spear), the dao (sword), and the nu (crossbow)
The jian (sword) was the king of weapons in ancient China
The gong (bow and arrow) was a major force China's armies
The qiang (spear) was used for long distance fighting
The dao (sword) was one of China's most widely used weapons
The nu (crossbow) revolutionized how warfare was fought
All of the soldier have unique faces
History
The ancient Chinese were involved in frequent wars
They used 5 main weapons
They built the great wall of china because of constant attack from enemies
First dynasty built 7000 clay soldiers know as the terracotta soldiers
China was surrounded by potential enemies
The chinese were involved in frequent wars of expansion or defense of their territories
The biggest war of ancient China was with the Mongols
They built the great wall because the Mongols kept attacking them
The Mongols were at war with China for about 16 decades
In war China would shoot the enemy their arrows and then send in cavalry, and then armies of tens of thousands of men
The great wall protected China from enemies and would have to get ladders to attack inside the city
The army sending out its cavalry
Before the Qin Dynasty the chinese used shell money
China led the ancient world by introducing shells as a medium of exchange and unit of accountin commerce
like many of their counterparts, our forebears at the end of the Neolithic Age used shells as money
they are durable and easy to carry and count so it was used as the universal equivalent
A cluster of ten shells makes one peng, the commonly held standard unit
at the end of the shang dynasty, northerners found it was to hard to find shells from the north so the started using things like pottery, stone, bronze and gold to make shell shaped money
After the spring and autumn period Chu state minted coins with chinese characters
This is a Map of the Silk Road
Minted coins with chinese characters
Natural Resources
Ancient china had many natural resources such as bamboo silk, lead, fish, coal, ore, honey, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin,clay, bronze,rice and water
Silk is one of the most important natural resources of ancient china
Silk became a precious product highly sought by other countries
It is believed that silk trade started before the silk road was officially opened in the second century BC
Silk Clothing
Full transcript