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Cough presentation

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by

Ahmed saad

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Cough presentation

Pentamix Syrup

Tiliaextract.
Guava leaves extract.
Fennel fruit extract.
Eucalyptus leaves extract. composition Dosage Adult : tablespoonful 3 – 4 times daily.
Children:1/2 – 1 teaspoonful 3 – 4 times daily.
Pregnant and lactating : tablespoonful 3 – 4 times daily. Properties PentaMix Cough mixture helps in : cough sedation and causing strong mucolysis effect which helps in easy expectoration, decreases the effort associated with cough, carries soothing effect in the respiratory mucosa.
It works as : protective agent for the mucosa of the respiratory tract through easing cough also relives cough pain. Broncho Syrup Composition Each 100 ml syrup contains:
Tincture lobelia ........ 10 ml
Tincture scilla ............ 3 ml
Tincture stramoniu ......3 ml
Liquorice extract .......20 ml Properities and actions Is a selected formula combining powerful elements which have a mucolytic, expectorant and bronchodilator action.
Liqourice, scilla and lobelia contents of Broncho increase the water contents of sputum and hence decrease the sputum viscosity which attributes to the “expectorant effects” of Broncho.
Also, liquourice acts as a demulcent agent in relieving irritative cough.
Broncho syrup has a “bronchodilator effect” through its contents of loeblia and stramonium, as lobelia has a stimulatory effect for the release of epinephrine from the suprarenal gland.
Broncho has role in treat : Bronchial asthma and lower respiratory tract infections. Adults :One tablespoonful, 3 times daily.
Children : One teaspoonful, 3 times daily. Dosage Pharmaceutical Products Medicinally the dried peeled root of Licorice has been decocted to allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis and urinary and intestinal irritations.
Licorice root acts as an Expectorant , antitussive and anti-inflammatory.
Origin: Dried peeled or unpeeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
Family: Leguminosae. The chief constituent of Liquorice root, to which its sweet taste is due is Glycyrrhizin ( 6 -8 % )
The drug also contains:
Sugar
Starch (29 percent)
Gum
Protein
Fat (0.8 percent) Active constituant 5- LIQURICE Active constituants Essential oils : Menthol oil the chief constituent of Peppermint
Menthyl acetate
Isovalerate
Menthone
Cineol
Inactive pinene
Limonene
Other less important bodies Peppermint is a multitasking herb when it comes to treating respiratory illnesses, colds and flu.
Peppermint can ease sore throats, treat dry coughs.
Act as : decongestant.
Active agent is :
Menthol which thins mucus and acts as an expectorant.
Origin: Dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha piperita.
Family: Labiatae. 4- Peppermint Active constituants Peculiar acid which named Lobelic acid.
Gum.
Resin.
Chlorophyll.
Fixed oil.
The seeds contain a much higher percentage of Lobeline than the rest of the plant Also called Indian tobacco, lobelia (Lobelia inflata) is an herbal remedy used to treat cough and other respiratory conditions.
Like mullein, lobelia used as:
expectorant, thus eventually easing coughing,
respiratory stimulant, antispasmodic
relaxing the small bronchial tube muscles to open up air passages.
Lobelia has been used to treat respiratory conditions like:
asthma and chronic bronchitis.
Origin: Dried leaves ,flowering tops and seeds of Lobelia inflata.
Family: Lobeliaceae. 3- LOBELIA Active conistituants Contain:
Gum
Resin
Yellow colouring principle
Green fatty matter (source of chlorophyll)
Glycoside
Acrid
Fatty matter
Free acid and phosphoric acid
Bases of which are: potassia and lime Is a traditional medicinal herb used for lung-related problems, including whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis and chest colds.
Mullein acts as an expectorant, which means that it helps to clear the lungs of mucus. but the herb has been used for centuries to treat coughs and lung congestion.
Origin: Dried leaves, flowers and root of Verbascum thapsus. Family : Scrophulariaceae. 2- MULLEIN Its chief constituents are from 20 to 25 percent of the phenols : Thymol and Carvacol, rising in rare cases to 42 percent.
The phenols are the principal constituents of Thyme oil, Thymol being the most valuable for medicinal purposes, but Carvacol, an isomeric phenol, preponderate in some oils.
Cymene and Pinene are present in the oil, as well as a little Menthone. Active constituants The herb thyme (Thymus vulgaris) has long been used to treat coughs and bronchitis.
Two early studies suggested that thyme can relieve cough and help treat acute bronchitis.
Origin: Dried leaves and flowering tops of Thymus vulgaris; Family: Labiatae. 1- THYME Plants treat cough The determination of the cause of a cough usually begins by:
Determining if it is specific or nonspecific in nature.
Specific cough is one associated with other symptoms and further workup is dependent on these symptoms
Non specific cough occurs without other signs and symptoms.
Further workup may include labs, x-rays, and spirometry. Diagnostic approach A cough is:

A protective reflex in healthy individuals which is influenced by psychological factors.

The cough reflex is initiated by stimulation of two different classes of afferent nerves, namely the Myelinated rapidly adapting receptors, and Nonmyelinated C-fibers with endings in the lungs.
However it is not certain that the stimulation of nonmyelinated C-fibers leads to cough with a reflex as it's meant in physiology (with its own five components).
This stimulation may cause mast cells degranulation (through an asso-assonic reflex) and edema which may work as a stimulus for rapidly adapting receptors. Pathophysiology A cough in children may be either a normal physiological reflex or due to an underlying cause.
The most common cause of an acute or subacute cough is a viral respiratory tract infection.
In adults with a chronic cough, i.e. a cough longer than 8 weeks, more than 90% of cases.
The causes of chronic cough are similar in children with the addition of bacterial bronchitis. Differential diagnosis The duration can be either

Acute (of sudden onset) if it is present less than three weeks 

Subacute if it is present between three and eight weeks, and 

chronic when lasting longer than eight weeks Duration A cough can be non-productive (dry) or productive (when sputum is coughed up). Character It may occur only at:
Night (then called nocturnal cough)
During both night and day
Just during the day. Timing Classification A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
The cough reflex consists of three phases:
Inhalation
A forced exhalation against a closed glottis
A violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
Coughing can happen voluntarily as well as involuntarily. Cough Faculty of Pharmacy
Beni Suif University
Phytochemistry Department Cough Eslam Ahmed & Mostafa Adel
Ahmed Mohamed Emam & Ahmed khalaf
Ahmed Saad & Ahmed Hendawy
Mohamed Dayhoum & Mohamed Nasser
Mohamed Ali & Mostafa Ahmed & Mostafa Mahmoud Designed By :
Ahmed Saad
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