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Gatekeepers & stakeholders: libraries and academic publishers
Transcript of Gatekeepers & stakeholders: libraries and academic publishers
- Dame Margaret Finch, lead of the Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research
“We want to be able to do for open access monographs what PLOS [the Public Library of Science] is doing for scientific journals. It is not that tricky, you don’t need all the paraphernalia and hurdles.”
- Dr Rupert Gatti, Founder of Open Books
Offers two options to journal contributors:
the 'Gold road' (author, funder or other third party pays, i.e. OnlineOpen)
the 'Green road' (author archives article in an institutional or subject repository)
corporate open-access -
can it work?
Freely available to anyone, anywhere who has an internet connection
Free to distribute and reproduce with attribution
Advantages of open access
Globally worth £7bn
UK journal publishers have 1/3rd of this market
75% of sales in export markets, rest domestic
Dominated by Reed Elsevier (2k journals), Springer, Wiley-Blackwell, Thomson, Kluwer, Taylor & Francis
Review copies: TLS et al, journals
Presence at specialist conferences
Advertising in specialist publications
Book fairs for rights, especially translations
Sales rep(resentative)s using Advance Information sheets
Oxford University Press (sales revenue: > £450m in 06/07)
Cambridge University Press (sales revenue: > £450m in 06/07
The others: Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, University of Wales Press
Sales revenue less than £3m/year
American UP s have presence through co-publications
National (legal deposit)
Author publicity form : to be submitted when manuscript is submitted
Publisher puts together a review plan
Sends out review copies
Conferences, mailing lists, catalogues, blogs
Cambridge University Press
Route 1: Self-archiving in Open Access repositories (Green OA)
Author places work in institutionally hosted repository
Corporate open-access models
Specialist forums for academics to disseminate their work
Venue for book reviews and discussion
What are journals?
Usually used at undergraduate level
Prescribed by lecturers as primary or secondary reading
Rapidly growing digital market: Coursesmart, http://www.coursesmart.co.uk/ - along with founder members Cengage, McGraw-Hill, Macmillan, Pearson and Wiley -- Sage, Taylor & Francis, Edinburgh University Press, Jessica Kingsley, Blackwells, W W Norton - 4k titles available
What is a textbook?
Digital (reference) products
In the UK
Dr Padmini Ray Murray
University of Stirling
Gatekeepers and stakeholders: libraries and academic publishing
Merchandising, franchise driven
The traditional superhero genre e.g. Marvel, DC
“literature that is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder.”
What is open access?
Reviews in publications like THES
Word of mouth
Advertising in specialist journals
Inspection copies for textbook adoption > Textbook Evaluation Questionnaire
Usually single authored
Encapsulates research findings
Limited print runs
Market: mostly academic libraries, but also some individuals
Market changing due to Print On Demand technology
What is a monograph?
University presses such as Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, Edinburgh University Press, Pearson
Smaller specialist publishers such as Broadview, Wallflower, Seagull
Journals, textbook & STM publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley-Blackwell
The knowledge economy
Dedicated, committed fanbase
Buy into the lifestyle
The comic ‘con’ (convention)
Graphic novels & comic books
Disadvantages of open access
Still viewed with some suspicion by some academics
How will publishers make money?
Route 2: Open Access journals (Gold OA)
Author or funding body pays for article to be published (article processing charge)
Open access + print
"Harvard's faculty advisory council said major publishers had created an "untenable situation" at the university by making scholarly interaction "fiscally unsustainable" and "academically restrictive", while drawing profits of 35% or more. Prices for online access to articles from two major publishers have increased 145% over the past six years, with some journals costing as much as $40,000, the memo said.
More than 10,000 academics have already joined a boycott of Elsevier, the huge Dutch publisher, in protest at its journal pricing and access policies. Many university libraries pay more than half of their journal budgets to the publishers Elsevier, Springer and Wiley."
Crisis in academic publishing
The Guardian, 24th April, 2012
the squeeze on book budgets, and how to meet the student demand for core texts. E-books
could help ease this problem, but publishers’ policies on pricing and accessibility are
inhibiting take-up, and
the costs and sustainability of current levels of journal provision. Cancelling large numbers
of titles or a whole big deal will give rise to considerable opposition. But librarians are
looking at various options to reduce the costs of their current portfolios.
- Challenges for academic libraries in difficult economic times, 2010
Responses from the library sector
"NESLi2 is our national initiative for licensing online journals on behalf of the higher and further education and research communities in the UK. NESLi2 was established in 2004 as a successor to earlier consortial initiatives that emerged with the arrival of online journals in the mid-1990s.
Content from 16 leading scholarly publishers is covered by our NESLi2 agreements which typically span 1-3 years in duration. Over 7,000 online journals are available to authorised users. Financial savings on the content purchased, as a result of focused negotiations by our staff, amounted to £6 million in 2012 and we estimate that NESLi2 has saved the community over £50 million since its inception in 2004. The content itself is made accessible directly from publishers’ web platforms."
SHEDL aims through collaboration and combined purchasing power to achieve a shared digital library in Scotland with easier access to online content to support research and learning and teaching.
Led by the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), SHEDL is the first super-consortial purchasing scheme of its kind in the UK. It’s success, facilitated by JISC Collections, has provided the eighteen Scottish Higher Education Institutions, the National Library of Scotland, and National Museums Scotland with access to over 3,460 online journals and 39,000 ebooks from leading academic publishers. Collaborative procurement with the NHS NES was achieved with the publisher Karger.
Responses from the library sector
The Compact for Open-Access Publishing Equity (COPE) is one example of how academic institutions and libraries are committing to OA by establishing funds to subsidize article publication charges.
Institutional repositories: "At Washington University School of Medicine’s Becker Library staff members assume responsibility for copyright clearance, metadata creation, and submission of all materials to the Digital Commons@Becker IR on behalf of authors."
Libraries as publishers
Responses of libraries