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History of Aviation
Transcript of History of Aviation
History of Aviation
The sky lantern, an early unmanned hot air balloon, was known in
China from ancient times. An oil lamp was installed under a large paper
bag, and the bag floated in the air due to the lamp heating the air.
General Zhuge Liang is said to have used them to scare the enemy troops.
Kids were already playing with helicopter-toys in 400 BC, before Alexander the Great was born. The bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released.
This may not sound like much, but it is more than
they had in Europe in the 8th century AD
In the 9th century, Abbas Ibn Firnas
is said to have flown from the hill
Jabal al-'arus by employing a
rudimentary glider. He covered
himself with feathers for the purpose,
attached a couple of wings to his body, and, getting on an eminence, flung himself down into the air. He eventually crashed and sustained injury which some contemporary critics attributed to a lack of tail.
Between 1000 and 1010,
the English Benedictine
monk Eilmer of
flew for about 200 meters
using a glider (c. 1010), but he
too sustained injuries. The event
is recorded in the work of the eminent medieval historian William of Malmesburyin about 1125.
We'll start in 200 BC
Since the beginning of time, mankind wanted to see the world from above. In many myths of many cultures, the most powerful creatures were the ones that could fly. Ra flew everyday over the sky giving light to earth. Icarus made himself a pair of wings and flew. Dragons were terrifying beasts that could attack from the air. And Da Vinci made many designs of flying machines.
In this Prezi, we are going to see the different machines in which man went from the earth to the sky.
Leonardo Da Vinci
In 1488 Leonardo da Vinci made a drawing depict a hang glider design in which the inner parts of the wings are fixed, and some control surfaces are provided towards the tips (as in the gliding flight in birds). His drawings are deemed flight worthy in principle, but he himself never flew in it. A prototype was constructed in the late 20th century and was shown to fly. However, a model he built for a test flight in 1496 did not fly, and some other designs, such as the four-person screw-type helicopter, had severe flaws.
Italian inventor, Tito Livio Burattini,
invited by the Polish King Władysław IV
to his court in Warsaw, built a model
aircraft with four fixed glider wings in
1647. Described as "four pairs of wings attached to an elaborate 'dragon'", it was said to have successfully lifted a cat in 1648 but not Burattini himself. His "Dragon Volant" is considered "the most elaborate and sophisticated airplane
to be built before the 19th Century".
Tito Livio Burattini
France and Britain
The Montgolfier Brothers
Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky.
The balloon had no control though.
The Pioneer Era
The Giffard dirigible, an airship powered
with a steam engine, and weighing over
180 kg, was the world's first passenger-
carrying dirigible. On 24 September 1852
Giffard made the first powered and controlled flight traveling
27 km from Paris to Trappes. The wind was too strong to allow
him to make way against it, so he was unable to return to the start. However, he was able to make turns and circles, proving that a powered airship could be steered and controlled.
During the last years of the 18th century, Sir George
Cayley started the first rigorous study of the physics
of flight. In 1799 he exhibited a plan for a glider,
which except for platform was completely
modern in having a separate tail for control
and having the pilot suspended below
the center of gravity to provide
stability, and flew it as a model
In France Clément Ader built the steam-powered Eole and may have made a 50-meter flight near Paris in 1890, which would be the first self-propelled "long distance" flight in history. Ader then worked on a larger design which took five years to build. In a test for the French military, the Avion III failed to fly and, caught by a gust of wind, was seriously damaged. Ader's later claims to have achieved a flight of 300 metres were later proven false.
World War I and II
Construction of the first Zeppelin airship
began in 1899 in a floating assembly hall
on Lake Constance in the Bay of Manzell, Friedrichshafen. The prototype airship LZ
1 (LZ for "Luftschiff Zeppelin") had a length of 128 m was driven by two 10.6 kW Daimler engines and balanced by moving a weight between its two nacelles.
Its first flight, on July 2, 1900, lasted for only
18 minutes, as LZ 1 was forced to land
because of the inefficient balancing
mechanism. It was not until 1902
when Spanish engineer Leonardo
Torres Quevedo developed his
own zeppelin airship, with
which he solved the
Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
Following a step by step method,
discovering aerodynamic forces to learn
to control the flight, the Wright Brothers built
and tested a series of kite and glider designs from 1900 to 1902 before attempting to build
a powered design.
They solved the control problem by
inventing wing warping for roll control,
combined with simultaneous yaw
control with a steerable rear rudder.
Almost as an afterthought, they
designed and built a low-powered
internal combustion engine and solved the power problem.
Relying on their wind tunnel data, they also designed and carved wooden propellers that were more efficient than any before, enabling them to gain adequate performance from their marginal engine power.
The Wright Brothers
According to the Smithsonian Institution and Fédération Aéronautique Internationale the Wrights made the first sustained, controlled, powered heavier-than-air
It was not long before aircrafts were shooting at each other. It was German Luftstreitkräfte Leutnant
Kurt Wintgens, who, on July 1, 1915, scored the very
first aerial victory by a purpose-built fighter plane, with a
synchronized machine gun.
World War II saw a drastic increase in the pace of aircraft
development and production. All countries involved in the war
stepped up development and production of aircraft and flight based
weapon delivery systems, such as the first long range bomber. New technologies like radar also allowed more coordinated and controlled deployment of air defense.
Luftschiff Zeppelin 129 Hindenburg was a large
German commercial passenger-carrying rigid
airship, the lead ship of the Hindenburg class,
the longest class of flying machine and the largest
airship by envelope volume. It was designed and
built by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH on
the shores of Lake Constance in Friedrichshafen
and was operated by the German Zeppelin Airline
Company. On May 6, 1937, at the end of the first
North American transatlantic journey of its second
season of service, while landing at Lakehurst Naval
Air Station in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States, thirty-six people died in the famous accident that meaned the end of the Zeppellin. which occurred while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States.
scale version of his design, first flying it unmanned
in 1849, and in 1853 his coachman made a short unpowered gliding flight at Brompton, near
Scarborough in Yorkshire.
Later Cayley turned his research to building a full
18th and 19th Century
1950 - Present Days
The Cold War
In October 1947 Chuck
Yeager took the rocket-
powered Bell X-1 through
the sound barrier. Although
anecdotal evidence exists
that some fighter pilots may
have done so while dive bombing ground targets during the war, this was the first controlled, level flight to exceed the speed of sound.
In 1952, the British state airline BOAC had introduced the Havilland Comet into scheduled service, the first commercial jet airliner to fly.
The 1945 invention of nuclear bombs briefly increased the strategic importance of military aircraft as even a moderate fleet of
The 1945 invention of nuclear bombs briefly increased the strategic importance of military aircraft as even a moderate fleet of long-range bombers could deliver a deadly blow to the enemy. Great efforts were made to develop countermeasures, such as supersonic interceptor aircrafts or surface-to-air missiles. The approach diametrically changed when a new type of nuclear-carrying platform appeared that could not be stopped in any feasible way: intercontinental ballistic missiles. The possibility of these was demonstrated in
1957 with the launch
of Sputnik 1 by the
Soviet Union. This
action started the
Space Race between
Since the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 into a
low Earth orbit October 4, 1957, the USSR and
the US started the competition for supremacy in
space exploration, the Space Race.
In 1961, the sky was no longer the limit for manned flight, as Yuri Gagarin (USSR) orbited once around the planet within 108 minutes, and then used the descent module Vostok I to safely reenter the atmosphere and reduce speed using friction and converting velocity into heat. The United States responded by launching Alan Shepard into space on a suborbital flight in the Mercury space capsule.
The space race between the United States and the Soviet Union would ultimately lead to the landing of men on the moon in 1969 after Neil Armstrong became the first human being to land on the moon.
and future challenges
In 2004 SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market capable of leaving the Earth's atmosphere.
In the latest years subsonic
military aviation has focused on
eliminating the pilot in favor of
remotely operated or completely
autonomous vehicles: UAVs.
In April 2001 the unmanned aircraft Global Hawk flew the US to Australia non-stop and unrefuelled. This is the longest point-to-point flight ever undertaken by an unmanned aircraft, and took 23 hours and 23 minutes.
And important challenge
is to make aircrafts
working on alternative
fuels, and the most
investigated and proved
energy is solar power,
such as the Pathfinder
Plus solar aircraft made by NASA space agency.
Maybe one of the most important challenges for aviation in the 21st century is to make a vehicle that operates as an aircraft as well as a spacecraft, which would make take-off and landing much easier. The main problems to solve are to control, power and sustain their own flight successfully in both Earth's atmosphere and in space.
Have a good flight.