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Art History 1905- present time

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Laura Readdy

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Art History 1905- present time

Art History - Unity Art Class
Modern Art - 1900 - present time

Art History - Modern Art

A New Century of Art
In the early 1900's, the world of art exploded with a wide variety of art, and some of it was non-art! There were many people who started various art movements; some caught on while many others flopped. We will study the best ones and some weird ones too.

You will be required to listen, take notes and later, choose one artist or art movement to focus on in your presentation and final project. We will incorporate a few fun projects that coordinate with various art movements. Let's have some fun and get a little funky with MODERN ART!
One thing: We need to remember that our ultimate goal is to glorify God with our art, our words and our attitudes.
Expressionism 1905-1925
What in the world?
Louis Comfort Tiffany Lamp
Louis Comfort Tiffany Stained glass, Magnolias and Irises
Frank Lloyd Wright, Stained Glass
Factory in Horta de Ebbo (1909) Pablo Picasso
Art Nouveau - 1890-1920
Cubism - 1907-Present
Dada - Dadaism - 1916-1923

Art Deco - 1920's-1930's

William Van Alen
1932 Girl before a mirror
Pablo Picasso
Synthetic Cubism: Three Musicians;
by Pablo Picasso,
Weeping Woman in Red Hat by Picasso.
Tamara de Lempicka,
Auto-Portrait (Tamara in the Green Bugatti)
Constructivism - 1920's-Present

Architecture and design- slick and linear, curved and modern.
A REVOLUTION and a REVOLT: Dada had only one rule: There are no rules!
Men of the Enlightenment
Cubism and Futurism
Beautiful—Then-Gone by Martin Venezky
Anton Giulio Bragaglia, “Ritratto fotodinamico di una donna”, 1924
Embracing the future, the war and technology.
The aim was to present the object from an alternative view point, in order to provoke thinking and discussion.
Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of the decorative arts, focusing on nature with a flourish of curls and swirls.
Vladimir Tatlin - Monument to the Third International - 1919-20
minerva.union.edu508 × 800Search by image
Vladimir Tatlin at Home
Title: Textile Design (c. 1924)
Artist: Lyubov Popova
Artwork Description & Analysis: Popova first emerged as an Impressionist painter, but she was later drawn into Constructivist and Suprematist circles. By 1921 she had abandoned painting to pursue the Constructivist ambition to leave behind traditional art forms and to make work for mass production.
Tatlin, Corner Counter-Relief, mixed media, 1915,. based on the conviction that each material generates its own pepretory of forms and colors.
Art in the service of the RussianRevolution
The advent of automobiles promoted travel. The world of advertising, movies and architecture took on the new slick, linear forms.
They wanted to make you feel what they felt. Nothing else mattered.
Details, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
The Scream, Edvard Munch
The Sick Child (1907)
Rabinovich, by Wasily Kandinsky,
once associated with the Construction Movement.
Compostion VIII- Kandinsky
The Fiddler, Mark Chagall
I and the Village, Chagall
The Expressionism Movement used intentional distortion and exaggeration for emotional effect; it is meant to make a person "feel something".
Expressionists used intense color, agitated brushstrokes, and disjointed space to convey their artistic message.
Expressionism is more than a single style, it was a climate that affected not only the fine arts but also dance, cinema, literature and the theatre.
They wanted to strongly impose their own sensibility to the world’s representation. The expressionist artist painted abstract objects that represented his or her idea of its real meaning according to them.
The search of harmony and forms was not as important as trying to achieve the highest expression intensity.
Expressionism assessed itself mostly in Germany, in 1910.
Four famous Expressionist artists are:
Edvard Munch (Norwegian)
Marc Chagall (Jewish Russian)
Vasily Kandinsky (Russian)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German)
American Scene Artists - ca. 1920-early 1940s

Ben Stahn, Dorthea Lange, Phillip Evergood - works of Social Realism.
American Gothic and Young
Corn by Grant Wood of Iowa.
Works by
Nighthawks and The Long Leg,
by Edward Hopper
Works by John
Steuart Curry
Celebrating the democratic ideals of America by producing art for the common man,
Harlem Renaissance - 1920's-1930's

Spanning the 1920s to the mid-1930s, the Harlem Renaissance was a literary, artistic, and intellectual movement that kindled a new black cultural identity. “Negro life is seizing its first chances for group expression and self determination.” Harlem became the center of a “spiritual coming of age” in which Locke’s “New Negro” transformed “social disillusionment to race pride.” Chiefly literary, the Renaissance included the visual arts but excluded jazz, despite its parallel emergence as a black art form.

Constructivism originated in Russia and like Dada was an active rejection of the past.
Particular to Russia, having recently reintroduced a limited capitalist policy, this included promoting capitalism through new forms of graphic and commercial art. This movement while ideologically runs parallel and was associated with other continental groups was largely preoccupied with issues of national politics.
Constructivistts wanted to use and experiment with metal, wood, glass and other materials to see their potential for use in mass production to further the ideal Russian capitalist society.
Constructivists focused on design of functional objects.
Constructivists were to be constructors of a new society - cultural workers on a par with scientists in their search for solutions to modern problems.
Vladimir Tatlin is often hailed as the father of Constructivism.
Art Deco History can be traced back to the early 1920s, however the actual term, 'Art Deco', was first used in 1968 by Bevis Hillier in his book, Art Deco of the 20s and 30s.The Classic Art Deco Look:

Art Deco is most commonly associated with a sleek aesthetic, symmetrical geometric shapes and bold bright colors like yellow, purple, ruby and turquoise. Architecture, posters and graphic arts and stained glass were the primary means of expression.
As leisurely travel came into vogue, a need for marketing exotic destinations to the young and affluent became increasingly important. Major advances in Graphic Design were happening during this time and in turn there was a mass producing of advertising paraphernalia that came out of the Art Deco era, most notably the travel poster.
Art Nouveau was stylized and curvilinear, Art Deco was streamlined and linear.
King Tuts grave was discovered and Egyptomania, as it came to be known, spread throughout the globe like wild fire and influenced everything from architecture to jewelry to furniture. Hence, we recognize the classic Egyptian Ziggurat (staggered tier/zigzag/pyramid shape) as a classic Art Deco motif.
An exhibition was held in Paris in 1925, called Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes. It attracted all of the prominent French artists, architects, craftsmen and designers of the period and featured their works. Although the various works did not all have a common aesthetic - but they have common themes: 'Modernity', 'Technology' and 'Luxury & Leisure'.
The Futurists were fascinated by the problems of representing modern experience, and strived to have their paintings evoke all kinds of sensations - and not merely those visible to the eye. At its best, Futurist art brings to mind the noise, heat and even the smell of the metropolis.
The Futurists were fascinated by new visual technology, in particular chrono-photography, a predecessor of animation and cinema that allowed the movement of an object to be shown across a sequence of frames. This technology was an important influence on their approach to showing movement in painting, encouraging an abstract art with rhythmic, pulsating qualities.
This summed up their spirit, " We are celebrating the "machine age", the triumph of technology over nature, and opposing earlier artistic traditions."Anton Giulio Bragaglia

Cubism is an early-20th-century new and unusual or experimental (avant garde) art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso and a few other artists. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century.
A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne, which were displayed in a retrospective at the 1907 Salon d'Automne.
In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Picasso’s art represented objects and sometimes people as broken up, into an abstract form. The aim was to present the object from an alternative view point, in order to provoke thinking and discussion.

The Emergence of American African American Artists in the heart of Harlem NY
Surrealism - 1922-1939
Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale,
by Max Ernst, 1924
Joan Miró, Carnival of Harlequin, 1924-25.
The Son of Man, Rene Magritte
The Persistence of Memory, 1931
Salvador Dalí (Spanish, 1904-1989)
This Is Not a Pipe, Rene Magritte
The exploration of the dream and unconsciousness as a valid form of reality, inspired by Sigmund Freud's writings.
A willingness to depict images of perverse sexuality, scatology, (extreme facination with excrement or obscenity in literature) decay and violence.
The desire to push against the boundaries of socially acceptable behaviors and traditions in order to discover pure thought and the artist's true nature.
The incorporation of chance and spontaneity. mphasis on the mysterious, marvelous, mythological and irrational in an effort to make art vague and strange.
Fundamentally, Surrealism gave artists permission to express their most basic drives: hunger, sexuality, anger, fear, dread, ecstasy, and so forth.
Their goal was to expose these uncensored feelings as if in a dream still exists in many form of art to this day
The apostle Paul calls us to “purify ourselves from everything that contaminates body and spirit, perfecting holiness out of reverence for God” (2 Corinthians 7:1). When you look at their work through the lense of the truth of the gospel,
What do you think about the surrealist movement? Could they have been influenced by satatic forces?
Tapping into dreams and the subconscious mind, seeking freedom from reality- Surrealism.
Abstraction by
Willem de Kooning, 1949-1950
Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956). Convergence, 1952.
Mark Tobey, Untitled

Mark Rothko, White Over Red, 1957

Helen Frankethaler,
Western Dream 1957.
Willem De Kooning, Woman V, 1952–1953.
Abstract Expressionism -Mid 1940's - present time
There are two types of Abstract Impressionism: Action Paintings and Color Field Painting.
Abstract Expressionism or "AbEx" (a.k.a. Action Painting) exploded onto the art scene after World War II with its characteristic messiness and extremely energetic applications of paint. Many thought it was not really art.)
Unconventional application of paint, usually without a recognizable subject that tends toward bizarre shapes in brilliant colors.
Dripping, smearing, slathering, splattering and flinging lots of paint on to the canvas (often an unprimed canvas).
Sometimes gestural "writing" in a loosely calligraphic manner.
In the case of Color Field artists: carefully filling the picture plane with zones of color that create tension between the shapes and hues.
The key to understanding Abstract Expressionism is to understand the concept of "deep" in 1950s slang. "Deep" meant not decorative, not facile (superficial) and not insincere. Abstract Expressionists strove to uncover their most personal feelings directly through making art, and thereby achieve some
or, if possible, some personal redemption.
Abstact Art - harder than it looks, or is it?
Pop Art - 1950 to present
Pop Art, for the most part, completed the Modernist movement in the early 1970s, with its optimistic investment in contemporary subject matter. It also ended the Modernism movement by holding up a mirror to contemporary society.
Norman Rockwell
John C Fedro, Sinata
Jim Dine, LOVE
Pater Max, Liberty Head
Roy Lichtenstein
Wayne Theibaud (tee bo)
Andy Warhol, various pieces
James Rosenquist
Jim Dine, heart series
Social Realism - A type of realism which is more overtly political in content, critical of society, marked by its realistic depiction of social problems. Dorothea Lange, (photographer), Ben Shahn, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Charles White, and Jack Levine are examples of Social Realism artists.
In the Depression era American painters began to grapple more openly with such themes as joblessness and poverty, political corruption and injustice, labor-management conflict, and the excesses of American materialism.

Liberty Head” ® Peter Max
In the early 1900's, graphic designers, and architects rebelled against formal, classical approaches to design. They believed that the greatest beauty could be found in nature.
Art Nouveau (French for "New Style") was popularized by the famous Maison de l'Art Nouveau, a Paris art gallery operated by Siegfried Bing. Art Nouveau art and architecture flourished in major European cities between 1890 and 1914.
In the United States, Art Nouveau ideas were expressed in the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany, Louis Sullivan, and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Futurism was most important Italian new and unusual (avante guard) art movement of the 20th century.
Futurism celebrated advanced technology and urban modernity. Committed to the new, its members wished to destroy older forms of culture and to demonstrate the beauty of modern life - the beauty of the machine, speed, violence and change.
Its leader was Filippo Marinetti.
They were interested in embracing popular media and new technologies to communicate their ideas. Their enthusiasm for modernity and the machine ultimately led them to celebrate the arrival of the First World War.
Key Characteristics of Dada Art
Dada was, officially, not a movement, its artists were not artists and its art not art. That sounds easy enough, doesn't it? Of course, there is a bit more to the story of Dadaism than this simplistic explanation.
The entire point was to shock people, make them think, and provoke an emotional reaction.
Dada began in Zurich and became an international movement. Or non-movement, as it were.
Dada had only one rule: Never follow any known rules
Dada art is nonsensical to the point of whimsy. Almost all of the people who created it were ferociously serious, though.
There was no predominant medium in Dadaist art. All things from geometric tapestries to glass to plaster and wooden reliefs were fair game. It's worth noting, though, that assemblage, collage, photomontage and the use of ready made objects all gained wide acceptance due to their use in Dada art.
Basically, a group of French, German and Swiss people were ticked off that there was a war happening. (WWI) and decided that nothing mattered anymore. They protested the war by claiming "If society is going in this direction, we'll have no part of it or its traditions. Including... no, wait!... especially artistic traditions. We, who are non-artists, will create non-art -- since art (and everything else in the world) has no meaning, anyway."
Dada self-destructed when it was in danger of becoming "acceptable".

Marcel Duchamp A man of great humor and wit, Duchamp loved nothing more than jokes, puns and challenging others to think beyond conventional wisdom. He is best known for introducing the ready-made (or "found") object into visual art, co-founding Dada and being affiliated with the Surrealists. Perhaps his greatest contribution, though, is that he almost singlehandedly shifted the focus of art away from the strictly visual and onto the mental. Duchamp's enormous impact on Contemporary Art cannot be overstated.
Jean Arp certainly had a lively intelligence. Over the course of his artistic career, he worked with the many different styles of art -- from the Abstract pioneers to Dada to Surrealism to Abstraction-Création. He is even credited with inventing biomorphic sculpture.

Who were the main artists?
Marcel Duchamp and Jean Arp.
The American Scene Movement: A term used to describe scenes of typical American life painted c.1920-c.1942. Much of this work is also included within Regionalism and Social Realism, and played a big role in New Deal art. It was first applied to the paintings of Charles Burchfield (American, 1893-1967) in the mid-1920s. Born in the aftermath of World War I. This art movement came from interest in celebrating the democratic ideals of America by promoting subject-matter accessible to the masses. A related trend was the growth of interest in creating prints for mass distribution.
American Scene Painting is a general term encompassing the mainstream realist and antimodernist style of painting popular in the United States during the Great Depression. A reaction against the European Modern Art movements, it was seen as an attempt to define a uniquely American style of art.
The American Scene basically consisted of two main schools, the rurally-oriented
, and the urban and political

Regionalim is in a clear, simple way of painting that could be understood and enjoyed by everyone. Grant Wood, of Iowa,Thomas Hart-Benton of Missouri, John Steuart Curry of Kansas and Edward Hopper of NY and Norman Rockwell are five famous examples. Another famous artist is Georgia O'Keeffe, whose artwork spanned over 50 years. She is sometimes considered a regional painter because of her southwest paintings, however, she a true American Modernist and cannot be boxed in one movement. Much of American scene painting conveys a sense of nationalism and romanticism in depictions of everyday American life. During the 1920-1940s, these artists documented and depicted American cities, small towns, and rural landscapes; some did so as a way to return to a simpler time away from industrialization.
Pop Art was born in Britain in the mid 1950s
Pop Art embraces popular culture and materialism. It does not critique the consequences of materialism and consumerism; it simply recognizes its pervasive presence as a natural fact.
They wanted to express their optimism after so much hardship and privation in a youthful visual language. Pop Art celebrated the United Generation of Shopping.
Pop Art, for the most part, completed the Modernist movement in the early 1970s, with its optimistic investment in contemporary subject matter.
Recognizable imagery, drawn from popular media and products.
Usually very bright colors.
Flat imagery influenced by comic books and newspaper photographs.
Images of celebrities or fictional characters in comic books, advertisements and fan magazines.

From malls and to People Magazine, these artists captured an authentic American aesthetic: packaging products and people. It was an insightful observation. Public display ruled and everyone wanted his/her own fifteen minutes of fame.
Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Robert Indiana (designer of huge word art)
Wayne Thiebaud, Jim Dine, James Rosenquist, Peter Max.
Two modern Pop artists are Thomas C Fedro and Romero Britto.
Louis Sullivan: (architect) The east entrance of the Art Institute of Chicago is marked by the stone arch entrance to the old Chicago Stock Exchange. Designed by Louis Sullivan in 1894
Your Assignment Opportunities

Each student has to complete a minimum of three of the many projects that are offered in this set
of worksheets. If you do three projects, and they are all done well, you will get a B- on this unit. If you want a B+ you should do four projects, provided they are done well. If you want an A-, you should do five projects and six would probably gain you an A, and they have to be completed to your best ability. You cannot do more than two projects from any movement. I encourage you to vary your projects among the art movements.
All projects are due by______March 27, 2015______________

2.There are several ideas on these worksheets. If you have a project you would like to do that I do not have listed here, you may present it to me using a sketch and a written description of the project.

3. You are required to fill out this worksheet in its completion. It is a big part of the grade. You have to hand it in on_____Friday, March 27, 2015_________________

4. You will have to do an in-depth study of one of the art movements or one of the artists
that were shown:
You can show your knowledge in one of five ways:
Create a Power Point (minimum of 10 slides)
Create a Prezi Presentation (be creative and thorough)
Create a Poster with several text boxes along with pictures and a title
Create an accordion book filled with photos and words. 13 pages plus a front and back cover and a works cited page.
Write a two full page written report. 12 pt, double spaced. You must include a cover sheet and a work cited page. You have to have a minimum of three citations, one must be from a book.
This is due by Friday, March 27, 2015

Each of you should use whatever gift you have received to serve others,as faithful stewards of
God's grace in its various forms.
1 peter 4:10

When you get to heaven, will be able to honestly say you used your gifts and talents to honor the Lord?
We have different gifts, according to
the grace given to each of us.
Romans 12:6
Not everyone is artistically gifted, however we can all improve and appreciate the talents of others.
There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit distributes them. 1 Cor 12:4
Two Phases of CUBISM:
Analytic Cubism, (First) & Synthetic Cubism, (Second)

"His master replied, 'Well done, good and faithful servant! You have been faithful with a few things; I will put you in charge of many things. Come and share your master's happiness!' Matthew 25: 21
God expects us to use our talents to honor him and do good for others. How are you using what God gave you?
Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the LORD is to be praised.
Proverbs 31:30

The people of the 20's were caught up in a lavish liftesytyle and worldly persuits. Little did they know that that the depression would change that!
"Come, all of you who are gifted craftsmen. Construct everything that the LORD has commanded.
Exodus 35:10

It is good to be constructive, but honoring the Lord with our work is more important. After all, God was the inventor of creating and constructing!
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says: "God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble."
James 4:6

As we look to the upcoming artists, who was humble and who was prideful?
Who was blessed and whose life was cut off early?
How long shall my enemy be exalted over me? 3 Consider and answer me, O LORD my God; light up my eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death, 4 lest my enemy say, "I have prevailed over him," lest my foes rejoice because I am shaken. 5 But I have trusted in your steadfast love; my heart shall rejoice in your salvation. 6 I will sing to the LORD, because he has dealt bountifully with me. Psalm 13: 2-4

These people had been hindered from creativity, and now it just had to come out!
The end of all things is near. Therefore be clear minded and self-controlled so that you can pray. Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers over a multitude of sins. 1 Peter 4:7-8
Keep this in mind as we look into surrealism.
Leviticus 18:4
4 You shall follow my rules and keep my statutes and walk in them. I am the LORD your God.

When God gives us rules, it is to protect us like a shepherd protects his sheep from harm outside the boundaries he set for them.
He loves us and wants us to have real JOY.

We are made right in God's sight when we trust in Jesus Christ to take away our sins. And we all can be saved in this same way, no matter who we are or what we have done. For all have sinned; all fall short of God's glorious standard. Yet now God in his gracious kindness declares us not guilty. He has done this through Christ Jesus, who REDEEMED us by taking away our sins. Romans 3:22-24

Where do Abstract Impressionists look for redemption and salvation?
Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be TRANSFORMED by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God's will is--his good, pleasing and perfect will. Romans 12:2
When we accept that sin is normal and we just "go with the flow," we are conforming to the pattern of the world.
Thanks to the philosophy that people should be surrounded by beautiful products, Art Nouveau became a ‘total style’, meaning that it included a wide array of artistical territories – architecture, jewellery, lighting, printed fabrics, furniture, stained glass windows and lamps, household silver and other utensils, wallpaper, typography and graphic design etc. “Art should be a way of life!”
Siegfried Bing (1838–1905) was a German art dealer in Paris, who was prominent in the introduction of Japanese art and artworks to the West and the development of the Art Nouveau style in the late nineteenth century.
Alphonse Mucha
Gustav Klimt were famous
European Artists of this movement.
Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. Romans 12:3

Be truthful to yourself about your skills. Everyone has room for improvement.
Jeremiah 17:9
9 The heart is deceitful above all things
and beyond cure. Who can understand it?

A popular phrase is, "Follow Your Heart," but the Bible tells us the heart is decietful above all things. They are not really talking about your physical heart- they are talking about your emotional inner voice.
True faith and trust in Christ is the only good engine for your life; emotions make a great caboose. Following only your emotional inner voice will only lead to disaster and heartbreak. Make sure to include Christ in on your decisions and get sound godly adice from those who love you and have your best interest.

In the analytic phase (1907–12) the cubist palette was severely limited, largely to black, browns, grays, and off-whites. In addition, forms were rigidly geometric and compositions subtle and intricate. The cubists sought to show everyday objects as the mind, not the eye, perceives them—from all sides at once.
During the later, synthetic phase of cubism (1913 through the 1920s), paintings were composed of fewer and simpler forms based to a lesser extent on natural objects. Brighter colors were employed to a generally more decorative effect, and many artists continued to use collage in their compositions.
Adameo Modigliano was born on July 12, 1884. He was a Italian painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France. He is known for portraits and nudes in a modern style characterized by elogation of faces and figures, that were not received well during his lifetime, but later found acceptance. He lived a life without self control and he contracted Tuberculosis. He hid his disease by doing illegal drugs and drinking excesseively. In fact, art historians suggest that it is entirely possible that Modigliani would have achieved even greater artistic heights had he not been immured in, and destroyed by, his own self-indulgences He was first influenced by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, but around 1907 he became fascinated with the work of Paul Cézanne. Eventually he developed his own unique style, one that cannot be adequately categorized with those of other artists. He died on January 24, 1920
FUTURISM: 1909-1920's
Romero Britto
Kieth Haring
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