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04 Revolution

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Thaddeus Schwartz

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of 04 Revolution

Road to Revolution
The Struggle
•Education - colonies full of readers makes the printing press one of the most powerful weapons in the Patriot arsenal. Educated people read and think, and begin
to critically
consider the
“status quo”
•Town meetings – spirit of self government is encouraged through town meetings where local issues are decided
•English Bill of Rights – reduces power of monarch and causes individuals to consider their rights and liberties, again reinforcing the idea of self government and representation
•Mercantilism – the careful controlling of foreign trade to protect the home industries and insure that exports exceed imports – this policy made colonists feel controlled and was contrary to the “New World” spirit of freedom and free markets
-Navigation Acts – limited colonial trade, set rules about where they could buy & sell
•Great Awakening – religious movement that sweeps through the colonies (1730’s-40’s) has the unintended effect of drawing people from different regions, classes and minority grouped together into one place (the revival service). Ideas are shared and connections made,
•The Enlightenment – a movement of the 1700’s that spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Closely related to the scientific revolution
John Locke – enlightenment thinker that wrote about natural rights such as equality and liberty, influences Founders to declare the rights of “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness”
Cost of the War – the war cost Britain greatly… the British government thought it was only fair that the colonies help pay for their own defense and the housing of a standing army in North America. Without consulting the colonist they began taxing the colonies.
French & Indian War - 1754-1763
British try to take the Ohio Valley from the French…
Fort Necessity - 1754 - Washington, serving as a British officer, ambushes the French and then builds a makeshift fort, he ultimately surrenders but
his attack sparks the war
Native Americans – most indians side with France but the Iroquois league sides with the British/Colonists
Turning Point of War – British take Quebec from French in 1759
Treaty of Paris 1763 – France gives Canada and all land east of Mississippi river to British, Spain (who allied with France) gives up Florida to British, Spain takes all west of the Mississippi
Proclamation of 1763 – King George III bans colonist settlement west of the Appalachian mountains
Stamp Act 3:51
Stamp Act 5:33
Declaratory Act 7:11
"Taxation without Representation"
...a result of the French & Indian War
see next...
and the idea of “spiritual equality of all” causes people to consider whether we should politically equal as well (democratic thought)
Social Contract – idea that government gets its power by the consent of the governed and that if it violates it’s contract to fairly deal with the people it governs those people have a right/duty to overthrow it
Seeds of Revolution
French & Indian War
Taxation without Representation
Results of the war...
French & Indian War to Revolution 11:19
Samuel Adams
Committees of Correspondence
to raise money from the colonies, the British government passed several acts but did not consult with the colonies.

The colonies had no direct representation in Parliament.
Taxation without Representation
charge a duty (tax) on all sugar and molasses imported into the colonies
Sugar Act 1764
Samuel Adams - argued that taxation without representation is tyranny and organized the…

Committees of Correspondence – communicated among the colonies and town about British laws, actions, and ways to challenge or boycott them.

Stamp Act of 1765
required the purchase of a stamp on all purchased paper items
Colonist group that sometimes used violence to frighten tax collectors.

British saw them as a terrorist group.
Boycotting – a form of protest that refuse to buy goods or services in order to force change
Stamp Act Congress 1765
nine colonies send representatives and their protest cause repeal of act
Declaratory Act
states Britain can make laws “in all cases whatsoever” for the colonies… this worries and angers colonists due to lack of representation in Parliament
required colonists to give lodging, food, and transportation to British soldiers
Quartering Act 1765
Townshend Acts 1767
placed duties (taxes) on many items such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea… this caused an increase in smuggling as colonist attempted to avoid the tax, as tensions rose Britain sent troops to maintain order… extra troops in a civilian populations was a recipe for disaster
special rights given to British East India company threatens to effectively give the company a monopoly on tea
Tea Act 1773
the Sons of Liberty dump 340 chests of tea into the harbor as an act of public protest against the Tea Act… results in Britain declaring the Intolerable Acts
Boston Tea Party 1773
Boston Tea Party 3:29
meant to punish colonist, demanded repayment for tea and stripped Massachusetts of its elements of self-government
Boston Massacre
the increase of troops in Boston angered citizens and a minor confrontations between colonist and soldiers resulted in British soldiers firing on the crowd (in self defense). The action killed 3 men instantly and the incident was used as propaganda (news told from only one side of the story) to rally colonist to the Patriots cause of liberty
Proclamation >>> Sugar Act >>> Stamp Act >>> Declaratory Act >>> Quartering Act >>> Townshen Acts >>> Tea Act >>> Intolerable Acts
|--1763 --|---1764----|----------------1765----------------------|----1767----|--1773--|----1775---|
Boston Massacre '70
1st Continental Congress '74
2nd Continental Congress '75
Declaration of Independence '76
Lexington Concord '75
Strengths & Weaknesses
Petition Concord Declaration Saratoga Valley Forge Charleston Yorktown Treaty
First Continental Congress 1774 – gathering of colonial leaders (except Georgia) to discuss what should be done about Britain’s actions. They decide to encourage continued boycotts, stop short of violence but prepare for war just in case.

Drafted the Declaration of Rights – 10 resolutions that included colonists rights to Life, Liberty and Property. They asked the king to correct the problem… he refused their petition

Patrick Henry - one of the famous delegates to this congress… “Give me liberty or give me death”

Planned to meet again in 1775 but things would change drastically by then

Lexington/Concord (April) – “the shot heard round the world” - Gage (British Governor of Massachusetts) sent Redcoats to Concord to seize a suspected Patriot arms stockpile

Paul Revere – (and others) ride ahead to alert minutemen (colonist militia) that the British are coming.

British arrive in Lexington and fighting breaks out with the British winning and marching to Concord
Patriots arms were moved before the Redcoats arrive and at Lexington and colonist force the British to retreat back to Boston with many casualties (273 British /95 US casualties)
"the shot heard round the world"
May 1775 – some called for war, others peace… they compromised and asked for new state constitutions and established the Continental Army with George Washington as its commander.
Fort Ticonderoga (May) – Benedict Arnold, Ethan Allen, and the Green Mntn. Boys take Fort and its cannon and a supply of weapons from the British
Second Continental Congress
Bunker Hill (June)
British win but at HIGH cost… proved that the patriots could challenge the British
(1000 British / 400 US casualties)
47 page pamphlet by Thomas Paine argued that citizens and not kings & queens should make laws

using cannons from Ticonderoga Washington out maneuvers British general Howe in Boston and places cannons on Nooks hill overlooking the British position forcing them to retreat… Boston is liberated

Siege of Boston - Dorchester Heights
Common Sense
Declaration of Independence 1776
Trenton (December)– beaten badly in New York, Washington knows he must have a victory to keep the revolution alive… crosses the Delaware River on Christmas night and captures the Hessian mercenary army at Trenton
New York (August)– Howe returns for his revenge (beaten in Boston) with 32,000 troops to Washington’s 23,000 (most were militia men) and sails into New York… pushes Washington into New Jersey capturing troops and supplies along the way

Philadelphia (Sep) – falls to the British after defeats at Brandywine Creek and Germantown
Princeton (Jan) – Washington forced the British out of New Jersey… they retreat to New York where they remain for the war
Battle of Saratoga
(Oct) - turning point in the war… U.S. forces defeat British General Burgoyne in NY and convince French to join the war on the side of the US
European allies – France and Spain would both come to the aid of the colonies and fight against their old rival
Lafayette – Frenchman who contributed greatly to the patriots cause both financially and as an officer
Von Steuben – Prussian military officer that turned Americas militia into a true army, trained and disciplined
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