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Groups and Organizations (6)

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Phillip S

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Groups and Organizations (6)

Groups and Organizations
Key Terms
Aggregate, or Category?
Types of Groups
Group Characteristics and Dynamics
Social Group
-collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging and have a feeling of interdependence.

-a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common

-a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic
-A group of drivers all in the same traffic jam

-Students throughout America taking Introduction to Sociology
Group interaction patterns change based on group size
Dyad, Triad, Coalition
Sumner's Ingroups and Outgroups
-a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity
-a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
Reference Groups
-a group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member
Which type of Group?

Troy is a Biology major who hopes to one day be a Medical Doctor. He often reads up on Doctors opinions on current events and science

Lisa has been searching for a part-time job for several weeks. A study group colleague of hers mentions her search to a friend who manages a restaurant. Lisa is then able to secure a job there.
-a web of social relationships that links one person with other people and through them, with other people they know
Large groups typically have social solidarity than small groups, however they may have more power.
Absolute size
-number of members a group actually has
Relative size
-The broader population that a group may be thought to represent
Group Leadership
Larger groups (secondary groups to use Cooley's terms) typically have more formalized leadership structures
Instrumental Leadership
-goal or task oriented leadership

Expressive leadership
-provides emotional support for members
Discuss a "network" connection you've made before? How was this beneficial or important to you?

What is a "reference group" that you have used before? Why did you select that group as a reference for yourself?
Group Leadership Styles
Authoritarian leaders
-make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members

Democratic leaders
-encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building

-only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions
Group Conformity
-The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society or group
Asch and Milgram research
Research has shown that pressure to conform may cause group members to say they see something that is contradictory to what they actually see, or do something they otherwise would not do
More on Group Conformity
-the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
What type of leader do you respond best to? Do you think different situations need different types of leaders? Discuss that further.
NASA 2003 Columbia disaster
Formal Organizations
Industrialization and Urbanization has led to a sharp increase in the number in Formal (Secondary in Cooley's terms) organization
Examples: Corporations, Schools, Government Agencies
Normative Organizations
Joined voluntarily when one wants to pursue a common interest, gain satisfaction, or prestige
Normative, Coercive, Utilitarian
Political groups, Country Clubs, Special Interest, etc.
Coercive Organizations
These are not joined voluntarily, people are forced to join. Total institutions such as prison, mental hospitals etc. would be examples.

These environments are characterized by barriers to one's exit from them
Utilitarian Organizations
Joined voluntarily, and used to seek a material reward
Work, School, etc.
Full transcript