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Teaching Pronunciation: Problems and Strategies

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by

Lilia Angelova

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Pronunciation: Problems and Strategies

Teaching Pronunciation
• age - native speaker accent

• first language - L1 influence

• motivation - needs, integrate into a community

• strength of ethnic identity - national pride

• personality and affective factors
Factors which Affect Pronunciation
Defining Goals
Problems and Strategies
Analysing the learner's needs
Managing expectations
Increasing Phonological Awareness (IPA)
- to communicate meaningfully
and effectively= intelligibility
Classroom-based Challenges
Integrating the theory into the lesson =MFP

Time constraints

Group dynamic

Lack of familiarity with IPA
Individual Sounds
Features of English Pronunciation
Segmental
Suprasegmental
Phonemes
(sound differences within a language)
Linking
Intonation
Stress
Consonant Sounds
Vowel sounds
Voiced
Unvoiced
Single
Diphthongs
Short
Long
Word Stress
Sentence Stress
Learner-based Challenges
Reflection Points
When should you focus on pronunciation?
What aspects of pronunciation should we focus on?
What techniques and strategies can we use?
Breathe in ...
and out
?
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#
Any questions?
Voice Quality
volume; breath control; breath capacity
Sounds in isolation:
phonemes
Consonants
Monophthongs
Vowels
Diphthongs
Vowels
Word Stress
Connected Speech
Intonation
voiced
unvoiced
Body Language
eye movement; facial expression; gesture
The Vocal Tract
Consonants
plosives
affricates
fricatives
nasal
semi-vowels
Describing Consonants
(un)voiced+ place + manner of articulation
= /p/ = unvoiced bilabial plosive

/theta/ =θunvoiced labio-dental fricativeɵ
/h/ = fortis fricative onset
/l/ = voiced alveolar lateral
/r/ = voiced post-alveolar frictionless continuantɵ
- Adrian Underhill Sounds in Isolation
Sentence Stress
Sentence Stress
Syllable-timed
: in some languages syllables follow each other at identical time intervals = an equal amount of time is given to each syllable. e.g. Spanish, French, Japanese
Stress-timed
:
stresses are said to occur at equal intervals= stress-pulses occur at regular time intervals no matter how many unstressed syllables intervene. They are reduced or squeezed in. e.g.
English
, Swedish, Russian, Arabic

Within the theory of stress-time, the first and foremost principle ... is that in English stress beats occur at regular time-intervals. The use of a metronome is perhaps the most striking way of establishing this regular tick-tock. When we listen to natural, spontaneous speech, it is not always easy to believe in the existence of a regular beat. Rhymes, poems, and limericks, on the other hand, provide a kind of positive 'evidence' for a strong 'pre-existing' rhythm. (Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994:106-107)
"In words of more than one syllable, the syllables do not all have equal stress. There is usually one [primary stress] that has particularly strong stress. This means that on this syllable your voice is
louder
and usually
pitched higher
, and you hang on to the syllable considerably
longer
... Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or make it completely unrecognizable' Ponsonby (1987:14)

In Finnish and Czech the first syllable in a word ALWAYS receives the main stress.
front
centre
jaw lips tongue
16
As Abercrombie (1972:64) puts it: 'we speak with our vocal organs, but we converse with our bodies'...
Put Ss at ease by starting with stretching and breathing exercises.
Word stress in adjectives - ous
17
The weak forms of - for
18
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs
18
Sounding enthusiastic
19
Rising and falling intonation in questions
19
15
linking /r/
assimilation
elision
vowel reduction
strong/weak forms
contractions
liaison= linking
- Sentence stress (prominence)
- the melody of speech
- similar to a guided discovery approach
back-
chaining
New Headway Intermediate
Lip Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.
curious
jealous
disastrous
ridiculous
oral drill
/k/ /g/
/p/ /b/
/F/ /V/
/theta/
CELTA Course- Bournemouth, UK
Liaison
1. The awful aunty is here in a new outfit.

/j/ /j/ /w/

2. The doctor advised me to eat only apples.

/r/ /w/ /j/
Ode to Schwa
A curvaceous young phoneme called schwa
Said ‘I never feel strong. It’s bizarre!
I’m retiring and meek
And I always sound weak.
But in frequency counts – I’m the star!’
START
4. Intonation
She didn't marry him - because of his parents.
She didn't marry him because of his PARENTS.

You're a nurse.
You're a nurse?

Dan's not English, is he!?
Dan's not English, is he?
It's Tuesday today, isn't it?

Mexico City.
Mexico City?

We need eggs sugar milk butter.
We need eggs sugar milk butter ...
rise
fall
yes/no questions:
Wh-questions:
to confirm
to socialise
L1 Influence/Interference: French Speakers
What a nice mirnkey!
I sink so.
Zhust a shild!
2 amburgers
Full transcript