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Teaching Pronunciation: Problems and Strategies
Transcript of Teaching Pronunciation: Problems and Strategies
• age - native speaker accent
• first language - L1 influence
• motivation - needs, integrate into a community
• strength of ethnic identity - national pride
• personality and affective factors
Factors which Affect Pronunciation
Problems and Strategies
Analysing the learner's needs
Increasing Phonological Awareness (IPA)
- to communicate meaningfully
and effectively= intelligibility
Integrating the theory into the lesson =MFP
Lack of familiarity with IPA
Features of English Pronunciation
(sound differences within a language)
When should you focus on pronunciation?
What aspects of pronunciation should we focus on?
What techniques and strategies can we use?
Breathe in ...
volume; breath control; breath capacity
Sounds in isolation:
eye movement; facial expression; gesture
The Vocal Tract
(un)voiced+ place + manner of articulation
= /p/ = unvoiced bilabial plosive
/theta/ =θunvoiced labio-dental fricativeɵ
/h/ = fortis fricative onset
/l/ = voiced alveolar lateral
/r/ = voiced post-alveolar frictionless continuantɵ
- Adrian Underhill Sounds in Isolation
: in some languages syllables follow each other at identical time intervals = an equal amount of time is given to each syllable. e.g. Spanish, French, Japanese
stresses are said to occur at equal intervals= stress-pulses occur at regular time intervals no matter how many unstressed syllables intervene. They are reduced or squeezed in. e.g.
, Swedish, Russian, Arabic
Within the theory of stress-time, the first and foremost principle ... is that in English stress beats occur at regular time-intervals. The use of a metronome is perhaps the most striking way of establishing this regular tick-tock. When we listen to natural, spontaneous speech, it is not always easy to believe in the existence of a regular beat. Rhymes, poems, and limericks, on the other hand, provide a kind of positive 'evidence' for a strong 'pre-existing' rhythm. (Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994:106-107)
"In words of more than one syllable, the syllables do not all have equal stress. There is usually one [primary stress] that has particularly strong stress. This means that on this syllable your voice is
, and you hang on to the syllable considerably
... Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or make it completely unrecognizable' Ponsonby (1987:14)
In Finnish and Czech the first syllable in a word ALWAYS receives the main stress.
jaw lips tongue
As Abercrombie (1972:64) puts it: 'we speak with our vocal organs, but we converse with our bodies'...
Put Ss at ease by starting with stretching and breathing exercises.
Word stress in adjectives - ous
The weak forms of - for
Strong and weak forms of auxiliary verbs
Rising and falling intonation in questions
- Sentence stress (prominence)
- the melody of speech
- similar to a guided discovery approach
New Headway Intermediate
CELTA Course- Bournemouth, UK
1. The awful aunty is here in a new outfit.
/j/ /j/ /w/
2. The doctor advised me to eat only apples.
/r/ /w/ /j/
Ode to Schwa
A curvaceous young phoneme called schwa
Said ‘I never feel strong. It’s bizarre!
I’m retiring and meek
And I always sound weak.
But in frequency counts – I’m the star!’
She didn't marry him - because of his parents.
She didn't marry him because of his PARENTS.
You're a nurse.
You're a nurse?
Dan's not English, is he!?
Dan's not English, is he?
It's Tuesday today, isn't it?
We need eggs sugar milk butter.
We need eggs sugar milk butter ...
L1 Influence/Interference: French Speakers
What a nice mirnkey!
I sink so.
Zhust a shild!