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Rise of Mesopotamia

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Austin Walker

on 4 November 2015

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Transcript of Rise of Mesopotamia

Beginning of
Stage 1: 9000 to 8000 BP
Known as the pre-'Ubaid period
Population was small and disperesed
Climatically this period was the most propitious for people living in this region because of higher humidity and more reliable summer monsoon rainfall
Stage 2: 8000 to 6300 BP
Known as the 'Ubaid period
There is potential for irrigation agriculrure because of the increasing stabilization of sea level by the end of this period
Since there is low regional populations and favorable environmental conditions, the irrigation agriculture was not neccessary for survival
Populations were less restricted than later in time and a range of habitats could sustain populations using a mixture of subsistence practices
Optimal freshwater environment continued to shift inland, which displaced human populations making many large groups move towards optimal areas for survival
Stage 3: 6300 to 5000 BP
Known as the Uruk Period, and it represents the earlier developments leading to the first fully urban state-level society
Population was increasing causing the expansion of irrigation agriculture, and many communities were becoming more reliant on these important systems
Increased food surpluses provided a firmier basis for expanding populations and making the soceity grow, where people are getting into proffesions like administrators, craftspeople, and other specialists
Demographic growth was favored by improving irrigation technology coupled with high water tables and the expanding floodplains linked to the deceleration of sea-level rise
The near-stabilization of sea level also favored further enlargement of towns optimally located on the margins of the expanded wetlands
Akkadian Empire Rise
The first empire was established in Mesopotamia was about 4300 and 4200 BP
Akkadian imperialization of the region linked the productive but remote rain-fed agricultural lands of northern Mesopotamia with the irrigation agriculture tracts of southern Mesopotamian cities
After 100 years the Akkadian empire collapsed
Akkadian Empire Collapse
The collapse was due to a prolonged period of drought which lasted for 300 years
About 300 years after the collapse of the Akkadian empire the stratigraphic level representing the collapse at Tell leilan, northeast Syria is overlain by a meter thick accumulation of wind-blown fine sediments, suggesting a sudden shift to more arid conditions
Scientists said they had no clear ideas to what had started the drought, but they suggested that changing wind patterns and ocean currents could have been factors
Many people left from Northern Mesopotamia to go to Southern Mesopotamia and it caused for double populations of the southern cities, which led to overtaxed food and water supplies
Rise of Mesopotamia
By Austin Walker
Present Northern Mesopotamia
Present Southern Mesopotamia
Works Cited
Northern Mesopotamia is semiarid
Winters are cool and wet and summers are hot and very dry and has persitent northwest winds known as the shamal
Winter precipitation results from the eastward penetration of Atlantic and Mediterranean rain-bearing cyclones embedded within the midlatitude westerly flow
The rainfall and wind in Mesopotamia make the region have a rich source of mineral dust to the atmosphere, with many region reportin over 200 days per year of dust-impaired visibility
Mesopotamia dusts have high concentrations of detrital dolomite, calcite, and quartz
Southern Mesopotamia climatic conditions are arid to semi-arid, with a mean annual rain fall of 139mm
Severe dust storms occur in the summer months due to semi permanent low-pressure zones over the Gulf that draw hot, dry winds across the alluvial plain
Because of the region's extreme aridity, agriculture is limited largely to the flood plains of the Tigris-Euphrates-Karun rivers that converge in an extensive wetland region
"Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea." Columbia. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. <http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~peter/site/Papers_files/Cullen.et.al.2000.pdf>.
"Collapse of Earliest Known Empire Is Linked to Long, Harsh Drought." The New York Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2015. <http://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/24/science/collapse-of-earliest-known-empire-is-linked-to-long-harsh-drought.html?pagewanted=all>.
"Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change." Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology. N.p., n.d. Web.30 Oct. 2015. <http://www.psu.edu/dept/liberalarts/sites/kennett/djkennett/pdf/Kennett_Kennett2006.pdf>.
"What scientific evidence do we have that abrupt climate change has happened before?" Columbia. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. <http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/arch/examples.shtml>.
"Mesopotamia." Martin Humanities. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <https://martinhumanities.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/map01-02.jpg>.
"Northern Mesopotamia." Twimg. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CFCEvmhUUAAJ7qH.jpg>.
"Sirwan River." Blogspot. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-VYaQOnD4IM4/VSzzuCdenKI/AAAAAAAAAJM/G5XnwnKFPSo/s1600/Sirwan_River.jpg>.
"3-12." Sunbijoux. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <http://www.sunbijoux.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/3-12.JPG>.
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