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ERAS IN HISTORY OF MUSIC
Transcript of ERAS IN HISTORY OF MUSIC
Three Most Important Composers:
Instruments for baroque music
The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning misshapen pearl
Johann Sebastian Bach
George Frideric Handel
Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance. Consensus among music historians – with notable dissent – has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school.
Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951)
Baroque Music is a style of European Classical Music between 1600 to 1750. The baroque era followed the Renaissance period (approx. 1400 - 1600) and preceeded the Classical era (1750 - 1820). The baroque period is notable for the development of
, a period in which harmonic complexity grew alongside emphasis on contrast. In opera, intererst was transferred from
recitative to aria
, and in church music the contrasts of solo voices, chorus, and orchestra were developed to a high degree. In instrumental music the period saw the emergence of the sonata, the
, and particularly the
, as in the music of Corelli, Vivaldi, Handel, and Bach. Most baroque music uses
. Note that 18th century writers used 'baroque' in a pejorative sense to mean 'coarse' or 'old-fashioned in taste'.
As the era progressed toward 1900, every aspect of the music became freer. Composers started making music about what they felt, instead of trying to make things academically perfect but unemotional.Composers started experimenting with non-standard time signatures (like 5/4 )and with non-standard instruments.
Some famous composers are:Tchaikovsky, Brahms, Dvorak, Liszt, Rachmaninoff, Wagner, Georges Bizet, etc.
Some instruments used in the romantic era are: The romantic guitar and the late romantic orchestra.
Piotr Ilich Tchaikovsky - 1812 Overture (Finale)
What is romantic era?
The romantic era is where classical music starts to get really interesting.This was the point at which composers stopped trying to make technically perfect pieces, and started to really express their feelings in the music. That’s why it’s called “Romantic”, it’s not anything to do with bouquets and kisses, it’s more like being on top of a lonely mountaintop on a moonlight night.
He was a Polish composer and virtuos pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano.
Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin
22 February 1810 – 17 October 1849
Was a German composer and influential music critic.
8 june 1810-29 July 1856)
A Russian composer that lived in the Romantic period. In his life he composed various pieces like: The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty. He included in his pieces symphonies, concertos, operas and ballets.
song: best of
3 February 1809 – 4 November 1847
Was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.
Georges Bizet has made various works, some of them are The Physician's House, Carmen, The Pearl Fishers, etc. He died at an early age because of heart problems.
the name "Leoninus"come from the latin,the real name is "Leonín" in french"Léonin"
Composer, poet and French teacher.
the name "Perotinus" come from the latin,the real name is"Perotin"
I was The most famous member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony.
LET LISTEN TO THE MUSIC!
It began in 476 with the fall of the Roman Empire and ended in 1492 with the discovery of America.
It was over 800 years ago.
The music was written during the Middle Ages.
There were three categories of musical instruments in the Middle Ages - wind, string and percussion.
Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) in Vienna.
13th September 1874 in Vienna, Austra.
13th July 1951 in Los Angeles, California, USA.
TYPE OF MUSIC:
Modern classical music (but also late romantic music as well).
Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured night).
Gurrelieder (Songs of Gurre)—for singers and orchestra.
Kammersymphonie (Chamber Symphony) Nos. 1 and 2.
Pelleas und Melisande (Pelleas and Melisande).
String Quartet No. 2. (See below for a video.)
Erwartung (Expectation)—a short opera for only one singer.
Pierrot lunaire (a set of songs ‘sung’ in a way that sounds almost as
if the singer is speaking instead of singing).
Moses und Aron (Moses and Aron)—an opera.
His String Quartet No. 2 is one of the first pieces of modern classical music. It was so different from anything that had been written before that the first audience was shocked
When most people think of Schoenberg, they think of one thing—yuk! Many musicians don’t even like his music, although most will admit that his music is very clever! You could say he was a ‘musical bogey-man’!! In fact, this is what he called himself!!!
Most people don’t know that Schoenberg actually wrote some very beautiful music (quite like Mahler’s, in fact). Examples of this are Verklärte Nacht and Gurrelieder.
He only started writing modern music because he couldn’t express everything he wanted to in romantic music.
He invented a COMPLETELY new way of composing (called ‘Serialism’). Many composers throughout the 20th century copied this style (and many people hated it!!).
He was delighted that his Violin Concerto was almost impossible to play!!
He was also a skilled painter.
He escaped Nazi Germany in the 1930s and spent most of the rest of his life in Los Angeles teaching people how to compose.
some interesting facts
17th June 1882 in Oranienbaum (near St Petersburg) in Russia.
6th April 1971 in New York, New York, USA
The island of San Michele in Venice, Italy.
SOME GREAT PIECES:
L’Oiseau de feu (The Firebird)—a ballet.
Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring)
Les Noces (The Wedding)—a ballet.
Oedipus Rex (King Oedipus)—an opera (sort of!).
A Rake’s Progress—an opera.
Symphony of Psalms.
Symphony in C.
Plus many more pieces!
Born: December 6 1933, Czernica
Died: November 12, 2010
Henryk Gørecki (1933-2010)
Henryk Mikolaj gørecki was a polish composer of contemporary classical music. Gorecki became a leading figure of polish avantgrade during the post-stalin cultural thaw.
The symphony no.3, op.36 also known as the Symphony of Sorrowful Songs, is a symphony in three movements cmoposed by Henryk gorecki in Katowice, Poland, between october and December 1976.
SOME INTERESTING FACTS:
He was one of the greatest composers of the last century.
He wrote the greatest ballets of the last century. These ballets are performed regularly today.
The three ballets L’Oiseau de feu (The Firebird), Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Sping) and Petrushka were first staged by Sergei Diaghilev. These performances have become legendary (the stuff of legends)!
He was one of the main composers to create the modern period of classical music.
His Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Sping) was one of the first pieces of modern classical music. This ballet cause a riot when it was first heard because the music was so wild. The audience even started fighting and the police had to come and sort it out!!
Le Sacre du Printemps was so new because it had rhythms that had never been heard before in classical music (WATCH THE VIDEOS below to see what I mean!).
He changed his style of composing many times. For example, Pulcinella and ‘A Rake’s Progress’ are very different from Le Sacre du Printemps. And his last works are very different again. In fact, they are like the music of Schoenberg.
He left Russia in 1910, and hardly ever went back. He lived in three other countries after this—first Switzerland, then France, and then USA.
He was a devout Russian Orthodox.
He worked with some of the greatest artists and writers of the last century, such as Pablo Picasso (an artist) and W.H. Auden (a poet).
Some great pieces
WHAT WERE TROUBADOURS
Josquin des Prez
ERAS IN HISTORY OF MUSIC
They preformed for the nobles at feasts and for everyone at tournaments and festivals
Some of their music was unusual because they sang about real people, love stories, and heroes.
Recitative- also known by its Italian name "recitativo" is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech. The mostly syllabic recitativo secco ("dry", accompanied only by continuo) is at one end of a spectrum through recitativo accompagnato (using orchestra), the more melismatic arioso, and finally the full-blown aria or ensemble, where the pulse is entirely governed by the music.
An aria in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.
INFORMATION ABOUT CLASSICAL MUSIC
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music (both liturgical and secular). It encompasses a broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. The major time divisions of classical music are as follows: the early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and the Renaissance (1400–1600); the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1830) and Romantic (1804–1910); the 20th century (1901–2000) which includes the modern period (1890-1930) that overlaps from the late 19th-century, the high modern (mid 20th-century), and contemporary (1975–2000) period, the last of which overlaps into the 21st-century.
European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century. Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are frequently heard in non-European art music and in popular music. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles lend themselves to the song form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.
Suite (music), a set of musical pieces considered as one composition
The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno or concerto grosso). This is in contrast to the solo concerto which features a single solo instrument with the melody line, accompanied by the orchestra.
Group of instruments that plays the basso continuo part.
The transition from nineteenth-century Romanticism to twentieth-century "Modernism" is, perhaps, as violent an upheaval as was the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque. Because the speed of twentieth-century innovation in all areas has been so accelerated, music has also moved from one new idea to another with such speed that no previous era can be compared with the diversity and extremes of its expressions. The search for originality on the part of every composer has led to a great variety of expression, reversion to past historical styles, neo-Classicism, neo-Romanticism, serial composition, electronic music, microtonal music, etc. The insistence of originality is so compelling that its end results often appear questionable.
The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600), and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1830) and Romantic (1804–1910). Since 1900, classical periods have been reckoned more by calendar century than by particular stylistic periods which have become fragmented and difficult to define. The 20th century calendar period (1901–2000) includes the modern musical period (1890-1930), high modern period (mid 20th-century), and the first 25 years of the contemporary musical period (1975–current). The 21st century calendar period has so far been characterized by a continuation of the contemporary musical period.
Basso continuo is a form of musical accompaniment used in the Baroque period. It means "continuous bass". Basso continuo, sometimes just called “continuo”, was played by a keyboard instrument and another bass instrument such as cello, violone (an old form of double bass) or bassoon.
counternpoint is a second voice less important than first
Example of classical music
By: Otso Järvenpää
Most important classical music composers
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By; Alba, Vanshika, Otso, Chris, Paula, Karla, Jorge, Grzegorz
Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina
MOZART BEST MUSIC THAT HE DID
Full name: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Date of birth: 27 January 1756, Salzburg Austria
Date of death: 5 December 1791, Wien Austria
Hall name: Ludwig van Beethoven
Date of death: 26 March 1827, Wien Austria
Date of birth: 1770, Bonn Germany
Hall name: Joseph Haydn
Date of Death: 31 May 1809, Wien Austria
Date of Birth: 31 March 1732, Rohrau Austria
The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. However, the term classical music is used in a colloquial sense as a synonym for Western art music, which describes a variety of Western musical styles from the ninth century to the present, and especially from the sixteenth or seventeenth to the nineteenth. This article is about the specific period from 1730 to 1820.
The Classical period falls between the Baroque and the Romantic periods. The best-known composers from this period are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert; other notable names include Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Soler, Antonio Salieri, François Joseph Gossec, Johann Stamitz, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Ludwig van Beethoven is also regarded either as a Romantic composer or a composer who was part of the transition to the Romantic.
Franz Schubert is also something of a transitional figure, as are Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Mauro Giuliani, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fernando Sor, Luigi Cherubini, Jan Ladislav Dussek, and Carl Maria von Weber. The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism (German: Wiener Klassik), since Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, and Ludwig van Beethoven all worked at some time in Vienna, and Franz Schubert was born there.
Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic—melody above chordal accompaniment (but counterpoint by no means is forgotten, especially later in the period). It also make use of style galant in the classical period which was drawn in opposition to the strictures of the Baroque style, emphasizing light elegance in place of the Baroque's dignified seriousness and impressive grandeur.