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Transcript of Stress Management
Presented By Manny Corpuz & Deanna Porter
EST 107 Fitness Assessment & Laboratory
18 November 2014
Athletes are no exception
physical and psychological response to excessive or a reaction; from real or perceived adverse stimulus; internal or external, tends to disrupt an individual's homeostasis.
Everyone Experiences Stress
Not only do athletes have to worry about lifestyle and emotional stress, they also have to worry about training and competition stress.
Stress can be the single greatest contributor to illness. Stress disease can, and do, kill! Having high blood pressure, can double the chances of a heart attack.
Stress can be a positive force, motivating someone to perform well at a sports competition or job interview. But often — like running late for work and stuck in traffic — it becomes a negative force. Experiencing stress over a prolonged period of time, could become chronic — unless action is taken.
Smokers with High Cholesterol are
greater at risk.
Having all 3 risk factors along with stress, it becomes
higher risk in ....
Effects of Continuous Stress
Takes toll on our cardiovascular system, digestive system, our immune system and our musculoskeletal system.
Constant stress can contribute to long-term problems for heart and blood vessels. The consistent and ongoing increase in heart rate, and the elevated levels of stress hormones and of blood pressure, can take a toll on the body.
Stress affects the contractions of the digestive muscles, decreases secretions needed for digestion, causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal system, making someone more susceptible to infections.
The colons reaction is diarrhea or constipation. All too familiar is the athlete or the student who has to rush to the bathroom before the big game or the big exam
Stress weakens the immune system interrupting it's ability to fight off foreign bodies (antigens), such as bacteria, viruses and cancerous cells. The main types of immune cells affected are white blood cells – lymphocytes and phagocytes.
Stress causes constant tension on the skeletal muscles and joints, leading to backache and muscular aches and pains.
A predisposition to arthritis; degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Hans Selye - an early pioneer of modern stress theory. His scientific research, "General Adaptation Syndrome" helped shape the understanding of stress.
General Adaptation Syndrome
are 3 stages, which a person goes through during stress.
These stages are associated with particular biological markers such as changes in hormone patterns and the production of more “stress hormones,” and the gradual depletion of the body’s energy resources.
the body recognizes a challenge or threat and goes into a “fight or flight” response. Stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol are both produced.
the body attempts to adapt to a challenging situation which is persisting. The coping or adaptation requires physiological resources, which may eventually get depleted.
occurs, the stressful challenge has persisted too long. The immune system is impaired, long term damage and illness may result.
General Adaptation Syndrome Stages
Distress and Eustress
Distress and Eustress results in the activation of the General Adaptation Syndrome.
Selye noticed that changes we feel upset about (distress) cause much more biological damage than changes we feel good about (eustress).
For example, two people may lose their job-
•Person A becomes angry and depressed.
He becomes unable to function or find new work due to the job loss which he experiences as unfair and stressful. (distress)
•Person B quickly accepts the situation.
He creatively begins job hunting and easily finds new employment. (eustress)
Thus one could say that increasing our levels of emotional acceptance about a situation helps us adapt to change and reduces the damage of stress.
Type A personalities—more quick-tempered, time urgency/ rushed life style, impatient or aggressive, easily angered — may be at greater risk for having a stroke.
Body Language- grimacing, facial tightening, clenched fist, explosive speech, hurry the pace and interrupting others.
Stress Personality Types
Relaxed, easy-going, high self-esteem, creative and enjoy exploring ideas and concepts, centered, not competitive, experiences fewer hassles than type A, because not easily frustrated- decreased risk of CHD.
Ability to suppress their feelings, highly committed, have a great deal of confidence, in control of their actions, enjoys their work, maintains themselves in top physical condition to meet mental/ physical demands of work- highly stressed as Type A, but not at risk for disease than type B.
but as a suppressor, a stoic, a denier of feelings, type C's are susceptible to a slew of ailments, from asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus to multiple sclerosis.
legal & Illegal Drugs
Take Control & Manage Stress
are the most important in determining what you feel. Perceive, analyze, and decide what is important. Controlling unnecessary stress may be the most important key to preventing heart attacks.
The 3 C's of Stress Hardiness
Developed by Dr. Suzanne Kobasa, researched groups of people with very stressful occupations. Those who seem to cope with their job stress - in other words, those who have a "hardiness" to it - seem to share three specific characteristics or personality traits. (Conveniently enough, all three begin with the letter C).
People, high in
feel like they are part of a larger purpose, they find meaning in their work, fully involved in what they are doing, by giving their best effort.
To them, problems are more likely to be experienced as minor setbacks in the larger scheme of things, rather than major roadblocks to the work at hand.
Stress Hardiness 1st C
Stress Hardiness 2nd C
People who feel in
believe that they can influence and make things happen in events and their surroundings. They have a strong sense of self-efficacy and an internal locus of control versus feelings of powerlessness or feeling like a victim of circumstances.
Those who over stress tend to perceive difficulties as threats, but stress-hardy people look at difficulties as challenges, become curious, and begin to look for angles and ideas they may have missed. These people welcome new situations as opportunities to learn, to grow, and to develop on a personal level. As a result, they are able to turn difficulties to their advantage.
Stress Hardiness 3rd C
#1: Avoid unnecessary stress
Not all stress can be avoided, and it’s not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be addressed. However, there are a number of stressors that can be eliminated. Learn how to say "no"; avoid people who stress you out; take control of your environment; avoid hot button topics; cut down your to-do list.
#2: Alter the situation
If you can’t avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Change things so the problem doesn’t present itself in the future. Change the way you communicate and operate in your daily life. Express your feelings instead of bottling them up; be willing to compromise; be more assertive; manage your time better.
#3: Adapt to the stressor
If you can’t change the stressor, change yourself. Adapt to stressful situations and regain your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude. Reframe problems; look at the big picture; adjust your standards; focus on the positive.
#4: Accept the things you can’t change
Some stressors are unavoidable. You can’t prevent or change stressors such as the death of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. To cope with those stressors accept things as they are. Acceptance may be difficult, but in the long run, it’s easier than railing against a situation you can’t change. Don’t try to control the uncontrollable; look for the upside; share your feelings; learn to forgive.
#6: Adopt a healthy lifestyle
Increase your resistance to stress by strengthening your physical health. Exercise regularly; eat a healthy diet; reduce caffeine & sugar; avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs; get enough sleep; avoid the hustle & bustle of life; take care of your own needs.
Managing your Time
Make a to-do list, keep it in a prominent place.
Assign their priorities in order, to your importance.
Get an early start on things.
Do it now, Don't procrastinate on important tasks.
Make all your phone calls at the same time each day, use down time for calls.
Stop or don't multi-task, finish one task at a time.
Delegate if possible, ask for help.
Don't expect yourself to finish to-do list in one day. Be realistic on your daily to-do list.
Alternative Ways to Manage Stress
Write it down. It may help to write about things that are bothering you.
Let your feelings out. Talk, laugh, cry, and express anger when you need to.
Do something you enjoy can help you relax. It might also help you get more done in other areas of your life.
Regular exercise is one of the best ways to manage stress. Walking is a great way to get started. Even everyday activities such as housecleaning or yard work can reduce stress. Stretching can also relieve muscle tension.
Progressive muscle relaxation techniques reduce muscle tension, by relaxing separate groups of muscles one by one.
Meditate by focusing your attention on things that are happening right now. Paying attention to your breathing is one way to focus.
Use guided imagery, imagine yourself in any setting that helps you feel calm and relaxed.
high blood pressure
the chances of a heart attack.
.... having a heart attack.
If it's beyond their control, they don't waste time trying to control those things.
#5: Make time for fun and relaxation
Take-charge, approach things with a positive attitude, treat or nurture yourself. Make time for fun and relaxation; connect with others; do something you enjoy everyday; keep your sense of humor, you’ll be in a better place to handle life’s stressors when they inevitably come.