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Transcript of Word Recognition
How do you build a common vocabulary? Just sound out the word. . . . Decoding, sounding out (first)
Teaching prefixes/suffixes and root words - why would this work?
Small words inside big words
Context clues (last resort) Word Recognition Occur "often"
Go ahead and Google "High Frequency Words" to get a list.
Those need to become "sight words". High-Frequency Words Sight words are words a reader should know by sight, without having to decode it.
Words that lack a predictable grapheme-phoneme relatationship, such as "have" - short a instead of the long a that the e would suggest. Sight Words Understanding the letter-sound code
In other words. . ."sounding out"
A child that cannot decode cannot recognize a word after sounding it out. Decoding Under what conditions that certain letters or certain letter combinations make certain sounds
Google "Phonics list" if you're curious.
Never, ever, ever make a middle-schooler memorize a phonics list. Bad, lazy teaching. Phonics The letters of our alphabet.
We have 26 graphemes in American English. Graphemes Smallest unit of sound
How many graphemes are in the word "cat"?
How many phonemes?
If you are identifying letter sounds, do so with a slash.
Little has l/i/t/t/l/e 6 graphemes
How many phonemes?
/l/ /i/ /t/ l/
Our language is difficult to decode because of words like "little"
There is on 1 to 1 correspondence between graphemes and phonemes like in most languages. Phonemes Vowels - A E I O U, right?
No, sometimes Y and W such as in "by" "friendly" and the vowel teams here in "cow, paw, own"
Consonants - all of the other letters, right?
Vowels can also function as consonants, such as in the word "azalea" where the vowel e takes on the consonant y sound. Why is this so complicated? Consonant Teams/Consonant diagraphs - "sh" = new sound, "wr" = one letter is silent
Consonant Blends - different than diagraphs because blends can be segmented and diagraphs cannot; "child" cannot be segmented into /c/ /h/ /i/ /l/ /d/ because of the diagraph "ch" but trip can be segmented /t/ /r/ /i/ /p/ because it is a blend.
Rime (different than rhyme) is the vowel and any consonants that follow it in the syllable so in the word "cat" "at" is the rime, which coincidentally, you would use to "rhyme" a word with it.
Onset - the consonant prior to the vowel - so in the word "that" "th" is the onset. Consonants Your typical responses will not work, here. When a child doesn't know ALL OF THAT, how does "sound it out" help?
How does "read it again" help?
How does a dictionary definition help? You will teach whatever NEEDS to be taught.
You will not teach the content you love all of the time.
You will not teach what everyone else is teaching all of the time.
You will help these kids. She got in her (blank) and drove to town.
Use context clues. What is the word?
She got on her (blank) and rode to town.
Use context clues. What is the word?
The word in the blank starts with an h and you know the h sound. Now what is it?
Maybe. Maybe not. An exercise in futility. Stay with me. . . Students have to be able to sound out words and then use context and background knowledge to help them predict or confirm that decoding.
And they need to do it in an INSTANT or they will lose meaning. Context is not more important than phonics or semantics. They are equal.
Figure out how many high frequency and sight words they know.
Figure out if it is single syllable or multi-syllable words they struggle with.
Figure out if they are guessing the words.
See what they know about letters and sounds.
And do this alone, in a conference where they won't be embarrassed. When they lack word recognition. . . Teach high-frequency words.
Teach common syllables
Teach rime patterns
Teach rules about syllables.
Teach pre-fixes, suffixes and root words Then, teach them. The texts used in your classroom will need to be read to them if the content is important. Figure that out.
Your reading instruction will need to occur on your own time, with them.
Embed as much as you can in the curriculum (root words and suffixes, for example) Use instructional-level texts. Imagine what will happen if you help a child learn to read, or learn to read better.
What if you fix a comprehension problem?
How much easier will their life be? This is difficult and frustrating for both of you. You said, "This book is too hard. The words are too long. It's just too hard." Then you pushed the book and your notebook off the tabletop. "I just don't care, " you said, not worrying that someone might hear you, for the school day had ended a good hour earlier. "I just don't care, anymore," you said again, beginning to cry, hating yourself for crying, hating me more for seeing you cry. You stood up, then sat back down, completely defeated. I sat still, not sure what to do. "George, I'll help you. You can do this," I said. You looked up. "No. The book is too fucking hard," you said. I'd never heard that word from a kid before, never considered I'd hear it at school. "It doesn't matter what you do to me or what you say to me. Don't you get it? It's not the fucking book. It's me. I'm dumb."
When kids can't read, they take the failure personally. They will say a book is boring or a teacher is bad, but that is all they dare to say. What they rarely share is what you finally blurted out that cold winter day. You showed me that becoming a reader shapes who we are, how we see ourselves, how we see the world. Failure to become a reader shapes our perceptions as well. From Kylene to George