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Properties of Matter DWFS
Transcript of Properties of Matter DWFS
If the atom is kicking out neutrons and protons it is called alpha decay (which is harmless.)
If it is ejecting electrons, it is beta decay (which is only harmful over a long period of time.)
If the atom is emitting bursts of energy from the nucleus, this is gamma radiation which is extremely dangerous. It causes cell damage. Radioactive Decay The Carbon Cycle The Water Cycle Solid, Liquid, Gas
Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate States of Matter What is this? How can we find out? Properties of Matter Kieran and Hanna Hawson Properties of Matter Chemical Bonds Atoms Atoms bond together to create objects. Atoms are the smallest form of matter. Matter makes up everything around us. The building blocks of everything! When we come across an unknown substance there are many ways that we can identify it. Since every substance has its own unique properties, we can use those properties to determine what the chemical is. For identifying metals and non-metals you can use their properties. Metal or Non-Metal? Non-metals are non-conductive and brittle.
Salt is a non-metal that has certain properties that are unique to it.
Salt is soluble in water
Salt is non acidic and is not a base
Salt water has a freezing point of -6 degrees Fahrenheit
Salt has a boiling point of 227 degrees Fahrenheit What's the Difference? Elements, Mixtures, and Compounds Compound: A compound is two or more
atoms from different elements that are chemically bonded. Not all elements can bind to each other and create a compound. Element: An element is a certain type of atom
that is classified by the number of
electrons surrounding the nucleus. Mixture: A mixture is two or more
substances physically bonded. A mixture can be separated
without the addition of another chemical. Periodic Table of Elements Evaporation: When the water heats up and is turned into water vapor.
Condensation: When the water vapor cools down and becomes water.
Precipitation: Any form of water falling from the sky (rain, snow, hail, etc.) In a solid the molecules are packed very close together. A solid has a definite shape and volume. A liquid has molecules that are close together, but not as compact as the solid's. A liquid has no definite shape, but has a definite volume. A gas has molecules that are very spread out and this makes it very light and allows it to float. A gas has no definite shape or definite volume. Air is made up of many different gases. Plasma is basically ionized gas. Plasma carries an electric charge, and when heated emits light; different ionized gases can be heated to emit certain colors -- that is the idea behind plasma TVs. Thanks for Watching! The atomic number is how many electrons the element contains. The mass number is the number of nucleons in the element's nucleus. Elements all have their own unique characteristics and properties. Potassium (K) releases a large amount of energy when put in water and has a melting point of 146.1 degrees Fahrenheit. Potassium is also highly reactive to oxygen.
Properties of Matter:
Radioactivity Metals are conductive and malleable.
Iron is a metal also with it's own unique properties.
Iron has a melting point of 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit
Iron is conductive
Iron is not soluble in water
Iron has a boiling point of 5,181.8 degrees Fahrenheit How Do the Elements Work Together? The elements can be combined to create new substances. The substances they make are used in all living and non-living things. These substances are either compounds or mixtures. What is Matter? Matter is the stuff that makes up everything. Matter can never be destroyed because it is always recycled or changed into another form. Chemical reactions occur when two or more chemicals are added together. These reactions can either absorb energy or produce energy. Endothermic reactions absorb heat from around them, like photosynthesis sucks in the energy from around it. An exothermic reaction produces energy like and explosion. Baking soda is a compound made up of sodium (Na), hydrogen (H), and carbon (C). It is also know as sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3). Salt water is a mixture because salt and water can be separated physically by boiling the water until only the salt is left. Math Lesson: Calculating Density Density is one way to identify an unknown substance. Density is measured in grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cu. cm). We calculate it with this formula:
Density=Mass/Volume You can see that the box on the left has more balls in it than the one on the right. If you were to measure the number of balls per cubic centimeter that would be density. http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/density.htm http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/states_of_matter.htm http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/states_of_matter.htm Chalk is the combination of calcium (Ca) and carbon (C) which creates a new chemical called calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Salt is the combination of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) which makes sodium chloride (NaCl).
Soap is sodium laureth sulfate (C12+2nH25+4nNaO4+nS) which is a mix of sodium (Na), sulfur (S), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H).
Structure of Matter Properties of Matter:
Radioactivity The collapse of the atoms into a single quantum state is known as Bose condensation or Bose-Einstein condensation is now considered a 5th state of matter.
Recently, scientists have discovered the Bose-Einstein condensate, which can be thought of as the opposite of a plasma. It occurs at ultra-low temperature, close to the point that the atoms are not moving at all. A Bose-Einstein condensate is a gaseous superfluid phase formed by atoms cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero. The first such condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado at Boulder, using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvins (nK). --Under such conditions, a large fraction of the atoms collapse into the lowest quantum state, producing a superfluid. This phenomenon was predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein, based on Bose's work on the statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and generalized by Einstein. Changes in Matter There are two ways matter can change its form. One is a physical change that affects the matter in a physical way and causes the matter to change it's appearance physically, but the chemical composition of the matter stays the same. Like breaking a tree branch alters the branch's appearance but doesn't make the branch no longer wood. A chemical change changes the matter's chemical composition and makes it something new. Like the addition of two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom changes the hydrogen and oxygen into water.
When water freezes, melts, or evaporates, these are physical changes. When wood is burnt it is a chemical change.