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Protocols used on networks and over the internet

Paul Moore

on 20 April 2010

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Transcript of Protocols

Network Basic Input/Output System
A program which runs alongside the OS
Allows the applications to access the network in the same way when they request network services
NetBIOS deals with sending messages from one computer to another - e.g. when a file is saved to a file server
Can also broadcast messages to all computers on a network
Used on Ethernet and token ring networks & generally included in all Microsoft OSes An extension of NetBIOS
Stands for:
NetBIOS Extended User Interface
Allows data to be split into frames
Faster and more reliable than NetBIOS
Generally included with all Microsoft OSes Stands for:
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange
The protocol is used on LAN & WAN
Can deal with sending messages between computers on LANs
Can also do this across a WAN by routing messages through a series of computers
Capable of operating on the internet but NOT an accepted standard as it is NOT widely supported (only supported by some Microsoft OSes and Novell Network systems) Stands for:
Transport Communication Protocol/Internet Protocol
Designed to work on WAN and LAN
Also used on the internet
Different from NetBIOS, NetBEUI and IPX/SPX - these are specific to particular OSes
TCP/IP is INDEPENDENT of any hardware or operating systems
Works with most network technologies (such as Ethernet, token ring and FDDI) AND works on ALL internet connections
Also supported by ALL OSes capable of running networks

TCP/IP uses 'routing' to decide paths for data
Can spread traffic across different routes
Can split data into smaller datagrams TCP Defines the method for transporting messages - defines how the messages are split into datagrams and how they are sent from one device to another IP Adds an 'IP Header' containing data used by the routers to work out how to get the data to its final destination Each computer on the internet (host) has a unique address so messages always get to the right host.
IP addresses are assigned when a host joins the internet.
Routers learn the address and how to get messages to them. IP Addresses 2 types of IP Address:
IPv4 - e.g.
IPv6 - e.g. 4FDE:0000:0000:0002:0022:F376:FF3B:AB3F IP Header Adds an 'IP Header' containing data used by the routers to work out how to get the data to its final destination A standard for moving files from one host to another on the internet or a WAN.
Defines how files and directories are organised and viewed
Allows the transfer of files from one host to another - even if the OSes are different
Also widely used to upload web pages to web servers Stands for:
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The standard for communication between web BROWSERS and web SERVERS
Defines how a page is requested, how it is found and how it is displayed
Secure HTTP (HTTPS) also allows encryption and authentication for extra security Stands for:
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
A standard for moving emails between email servers
Defines how an email is formatted
As long as an email uses SMTP, all mail servers can read it and convert it to the format they use
Email servers will convert SMTP to POP (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) depending on the type of email software used by the network
Stands for:
Session Initiation Protocol
Used for establishing sessions in an IP network
These could be:
Telephone calls
Instant Messaging
Video conferences
SIP is the accepted protocol for VoIP
Full transcript