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History of Theatre -- Timeline

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Sarah-Jane Meijer

on 13 February 2015

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Transcript of History of Theatre -- Timeline

History of Theatre -- Timeline
Renaissance Theatre
1562 and 1642
Some playwrights were:
Shakespeare
1592 He had been living in London as an actor/playwrite
He was a managing partner of the "Lord Chamberlains" acting troupe.
In 1603 the "Lord Chamberlains" acting troupe changed its name to " The Kings Men" to commemorate the coronation of King James I.
1597, 15 of his 37 plays had been written.
1559, he and his business partners built another theatre on the south bank of the Thames River.
First plays (exception of Romeo and Juliette) were mostly histories written in the early 1590's Ex. Richard II, Henry VI (parts 1, 2 and 3) and Henry V demonstrate the consequences of rulers
Romances like: A Midsummer Night's Dream, Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night.
Other plays, possibly written before 1600, include: Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona
after 1600,he wrote the tragedies: Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth.
Possibly the best known of his tragedies is Hamlet.
He also wrote several tragicomedies: Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest.
tragicomedies are graver in tone than the comedies, but they are not as dark as King Lear or Macbeth because they end with reconciliation and forgiveness.
Ben Jonson
Realism Theatre
1859 -- 1900
the playwrights of this time were Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen.
Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species in 1859, that life favored "survival of the fittest."
there were three aspects to the theory:
people were controlled by heredity and environment
behaviors were beyond our control
humanity is a natural object, rather than being above all else
Primitive Theatre
prehistoric -- 500BC
tribal
religious ceremony -- a ritual performance, usually involving costume, masks, music and dance; performed to win favour from the gods;the tribe’s attempt to control the environment or fate.
story telling -- oral tradition of history; recounting an event.
early rituals used rhythmic drumming for music in their plays
rituals used pantomiming dance with grunting instead of words to get their meaning across
Greek Theatre
510 BC and 220 BC
Dionysus was the god of wine and fertility
stages were round and called either "in the round" or "orchestras"
most comedies were satirical, where the satyrs (half goat and half human) would make fun of men in positions of power
tragedies dealt with the bigger themes of love, loss, pride, the abuse of power, and relationships between man and the gods.
the Greeks heavily believed and relied on fate:
a prophetic declaration of what must become
all fighting was done off stage
all actors wore extremely over the top masks
all performances had a chorus that faced the audience at all times in the round
the chorus all wore the same mask to appear as one, and to be unified
Restoration Theatre
1645 to 1710
playwrights such as :Aphra Behn (the first women playwright, William Davanant
Before 1642 – the royalty supported the theatre.
In 1642, a civil war – the Puritan Revolution. Charles I was beheaded and the country’s leadership taken over by Oliver Cromwell.
From 1642 - 1660, called "the interregnum." Theatre was outlawed; it was connected with the monarchy and with "immoral," non-Puritan values.
Music, however, was allowed, and William Davanant produced some operas with Italianate stagings, with some illegal performances.
The monarchy was restored in 1660. Charles I’s son, Charles II, restored to the throne. He had been in France during the Interregnum, in the court of Louis XIV, who loved theatre. Charles II helped bring Italianate and French styles and staging to England.
The Drury Lane and Covent Gardens became the first theatres officially licensed during this period.
The type of theatre brought back resulted in a sort of protest against the Puritan ideal, and was designed primarily for the aristocracy. And then this form of theatre was in turn rebelled against.
Characterized by:
•"honor" comes from reputation, not integrity
• "witty" dialog—saying things in clever ways
Use of "transparency" names: "Sparkish, Fidget, Squeamish" Mrs. Malaprop ("mal= French for "ill" -- therefore, "ill-appropriate")

Romanticism Theatre
1789
August von Kotzebue, René Charles Guilbert de pixérécourt
emerged as a reaction to ideas of enlightenment
stressed feeling the emotions
was influenced by the medieval era
romanticism had two main beliefs
needed to mirror society and be an instrument of imagination
abandonment of classical reason
Beethoven's 3rd synphony was an example of romanticism music
Edgar Allen Poe and William Wordsworth were some poets of this time period
Medieval Theatre
1100AD -- 1600 AD
Thomas Kyd, Christopher Marlowe
Medieval theatre refers to the theatre in the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance
After the fall of Rome the 600’s A.D., came a period known to us as the "dark ages."
no reliable political structure, the Church was the only stable "government"
The church exerted increasing influence. In the 4th Century, the Bishop of Rome, claiming to be the successor to St. Peter, established supremacy in church matters and in secular concerns.
There was a lot of feudalism with the controversy between the roman catholic church and the state
Modern Theatre
1860's -- present
some playrights wereEugene O'Neill, George Pierce Baker
this is the period that we are currently in
the plays of todays society
use of mainly "arch" stages
Musical Theatre
1920's -- present
the playwrights of this period are: Andrew Lloyd Webber, Claude-Michel Schönberg
musical theatre, or "musicals" are the same as most lays except mostly sung with alot of music
By: Sarah-Jane Meijer
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