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Transcript of Middle Ages
1. WHY DO CONFLICTS OCCUR BETWEEN NATIONS?
2. WHAT DO THE COLLAPSES OF PAST SOCIETIES TEACH US ABOUT OUR FUTURE?
3. wHEN IS WAR JUSTIFIED?
4. WHY DO SOCIAL HIERARCHIES EXIST AND HOW MIGHT THEY LEAD TO INEQUALITY WITHIN A SOCIETY?
Life after the Romans
What happened after Rome fell?
Disruption of trade
Downfall of Cities
Decline of Learning
Loss of Common Language
United and led the Franks and wiped out the last vestiges of Roman authority in Gaul
Military campaigns against other Germanic peoples
“ For I have called on my gods but I find they are far from my aid...Now I call on Thee. I long to believe in Thee. Only, please deliver me from my enemies.” (Clovis, 496AD)
Converted to Christianity causing others in his kingdom to convert (Roman Catholic)
Alliance with church strengthens the Franks
Who was Clovis?
What was the Carolingian (Carlovingians) dynasty?
Line of rulers who took control of the Franks in the 8th century.
Not king but led troops that defeated Muslims at the Battle of Poitiers [pwatje] in 732
Charles Martel’s son claims throne in 751
What are the Middle Ages
Period lasting from about 500 to about 1500.
Falls between ancient and modern times.
Who was Charlemagne?
Grandson of Charles Martel
Relied on aristocratic deputies known as counts.
Used missi dominici (Latin for "envoy[s] of the lord [ruler]) to oversee local authorities
Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800
The coronation strained relations with Byzantine emperors
In 800, Charlemagne journeyed to Rome to help Pope Leo III who was barely clinging to power in the face of rebellious Romans. On Christmas Day, Charlemagne and his family crowded into St. Peter’s Basilica to hear Mass. Quite unexpectedly, according to a Frankish writer, “as the king rose from praying before the tomb of the blessed apostle Peter, Pope Leo placed a golden crown on his head.”
6th Century Europe
What was the social and cultural Impact of Carolingian rule?
Renewed interest in learning
Revival of classical studies and preservation of Latin culture in monasteries
Promoted learning by establishing a palace school and encouraging scholars from all over Europe to come to his empire
What Caused the decline of Carolingian Empire?
Muslim invasions in south and east
Magyars invaded from the east
Vikings invaded from the north
Norse expansion (from Scandinavia)
Motives: population pressure, resisting Christian missionaries
Raided from Russia to Spain
Outstanding seafarers and established a colony in Canada
Fleets could travel inland via rivers
What happened after Charlemagne?
Louis the Pious
Son of Charlemagne
Weak ruler who was unable to control his aristocrats or his four sons
Died in 843
Left control of empire to his three surviving sons (Charles the Bald, Louis the German, and Lothair)
What was the Treaty of Verdun?
Signed to settle the territory dispute following Louis the Pious death
Gave Frankish lands to Charles, Louis took eastern lands, and Lothair took Middle Kingdom.
What caused the decline of Carolingian Empire?
What was feudalism?
A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service
The system-lords and vassals, primogeniture (right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings)
Warfare-private fights between feudal lords
Feudal Justice-trial by battle, oath taking, or trial by ordeal
Lord was the landowner
Fief was a grant of land given by lord to vassal
Vassal was peasant who held one or more plots of land owned by the lord
What is the manorial system?
Manors were the primary source of agricultural production
Peasants (serfs) lived very difficult lives) and produced nearly everything that they and their lord needed for daily life.
Nobles lived in castles (fortified base) and collected taxes from the serfs
Tithe was a church tax imposed on serfs by priests
What was the economy of early Medieval Europe like?
Agriculture production suffered from repeated invasions
Appeared in 6th century, could turn heavy northern soils
Became common in the 8th century, production increased
Cultivations of new lands; watermills; and rotating crops
Rural society—agricultural surplus not enough to support large cities
Italian and Spanish merchants trade with Muslims
Norse merchant mariners in North and Baltic Seas
Followed routes of Vikings
Traded actively with Byzantine and Abbasid empire
Imported Abbasid silver used in European coinage
36 million in 200
Down to 26 million in 600
Back up to 36 million in 1000
What caused a growth of the Agricultural Economy?
Expansion of arable land (land used for growing crops)
Population pressure by late 10th century
Serfs and monks began to clear forests and swamps
Lords encouraged such efforts for high taxes
Improved agricultural techniques
Crop rotation methods
Cultivation of beans increased and enriched the land
More domestic animals also enriched the land
Books and treatises on household economy and agricultural methods
New tools and technology
Extensive use of watermills and heavy plows
Use of horseshoe and horse collar increased land under cultivation
New food supplies
Before 1000, European diet was mostly grain
After 1000, more meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, and legumes
Spain, Italy, Mediterranean got new foods through Islamic world
What caused a revival of Towns and Trade?
Peasants and Serfs flocked to cities and towns
Textile production increases especially in Italy
Italy dominates Mediterranean trade
The Hanseatic League
An association of trading cities
Hansa dominated trade of northern Europe
Major European rivers linked Hansa to the Mediterranean
Improved business techniques
Bankers issued letters of credits to merchants
Commercial partnerships for limiting risks of commercial investment
What were the three main estates in a medieval society?
“Those who pray”-clergy of Roman Catholic church
“Those who fight”-feudal nobles, the military estate
“Those who work”-mostly peasants and serfs
What were some Medieval technological advances?
Trebuchet--worked like a slingshot and propelled objects up to a distance of 980 feet
Tortoise--moved slowly on wheels and sheltered soldiers from falling arrows.
Mangonel--flung huge rocks that crashed into castle walls and would propel objects up to a distance of 1300
Siege Tower--had a platform on top that lowered like a drawbridge and could support weapons and soldiers
Battering Ram--made of heavy timber with a sharp metal tip that swung like a pendulum to crack castle walls or know down drawbridge.
Things that were launched with trebuchet
pots of burning lime
severed human heads
What is Chivalry?
Complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters (feudal lord, Heavenly Lord, and chosen lady)
Ideal knight was loyal , brave, courteous and protected the weak and the poor.
Widely recognized code of ethic
Christian officials directed chivalry toward Christian faith and customs.
What were some other social changes during the Middle Ages?
composer and performer of songs
Aristocratic women promoted chivalric values by patronizing troubadours
Drew inspiration from the love of poetry in Muslim Spain
Eleanor of Aquitaine was most celebrated women of her day
Supported troubadours, promoted good manners, refinement, and romantic love
Code of Chivalry and romantic poetry softened the manners of rough warriors
Urban populations increasingly resisted demands of feudal nobles
Regulated production and sale of goods
Established standards of quality for manufactured goods
Determined prices and regulated entry of new workers
Social significance: Friendship, mutual support, built halls
Most guilds admitted women, and women also had their own guilds
What role did the Church play in the Middle Ages?
Church played a very little role during early Middle Ages as many people lost faith due to black death
As Middle Ages progressed Church became a very powerful influence
bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.
the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.
tried to curb feudal warfare by allowing only 40 days a year for combat.
curb heresies such as the crusades and the Inquisition
tithe--1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.
What was the structure of a Medieval church?
Power was based on status
Head of church was the pope who had control over all clergy
Bishops fell below pope and had control over priests, who were the lowest ranking members of the clergy and were who most people had contact with
Way of life in covenants and monastaries
Two types of clergy
Secular (worldly) who were not bound by monastic vows (bishops and others in the higher levels of Catholic church).
Regular clergy belong to a monastic order or community
What was Monasticism?
Conversion of Vikings and Magyars removes pressure on Europe
Agricultural advances increase food supply
What were some Political Causes of the Crusades?
Why did Pope Urban II call for a Crusade in 1095(what did he hope to gain)
to unite European Christians in a common cause
to make the kings and noble vassals under his spiritual leadership
to return the Holy Lands to Christian control
Provide occasion for healing Great Schism (1064) on Rome's terms
to subject the Eastern orthodox churches to Rome
Obligate the Byzantines
Drive Turks from Anatolia
Why did people go on Crusades?
they viewed the Holy Lands as rightfully theirs, and, in a Holy War, dying for the cause led to salvation.
The kings and nobles saw the opportunity for glory at home and the power of landholdings in the Middle East.
Merchants saw a chance for quick gain and a chance for trade expansion.
The lower classes could have their taxes canceled or paid by the church; avoid jail by going; plunder for personal gain.
Some Europeans wanted to see new lands and new cultures.
Council of Clermont, 1095
“If any one through devotion alone, and not for the sake of honor or gain, goes to Jerusalem to free the church of God, the journey itself shall take the place of all penance. “
Why Did the Crusades Fail?
There was never a supreme commander power struggles between kings, knights, and nobles led to disunity.
Poor tactics and strategy and the inability to adapt to military methods suitable from the region and the enemy.
Lack of geographical knowledge.
Refusal to swear allegiance to Byzantine emperor and receive his support and information.
Difficulties in maintaining supplies led to "barbarian' acts by civilized Europeans.
They established a castle defense only along the coast and never incorporated the allegiance of the local people.
What were some Effects of Crusades?
Towns grew on size and importance
New products plus greater mobility
Increased the power and influence of the Pope
Strengthened the Kings or Centralized Power
While kings and their knights were away fighting their territory was confiscated or conquered by a few left behind consolidating the territory under a few kings instead of many.
Serfs gained their freedom on the crusades and while their masters were away or killed moved into the manor or to the new towns
New town laws changed the base of power from the nobles to the leaders of the town
Increased role and membership of christianity in society
When did the Bubonic plague occur in history
3 great pandemics of bubonic plague in history
The first was Justinian's Plague that began in 542 and lasted until 662.
The second was the Black Death that began in 1347 and lasted until 1665. 38-39 million people died between 1347-1351.
The third began in Yunnan, China in 1892 and spread to India by 1896, killing approximately 6 million people in India alone.
Where did the Black Death come from?
How many people died?
Italy had the largest % of deaths where over 50-60% of the people died
In Europe it is estimated that 1/3 of the population died
The number of people estimated to have died in Europe is over 25 million people
Worldwide estimates are 38 million people
What types of black death are there?
There are three related diseases that make up the Black Death.
Bubonic plague is the most common, and, without antibiotics, is fatal 50-60% of the time.
Pneumonic plague is less common, is extremely contagious, and is fatal 95% of the time.
Septicemia plague, which is fortunately very rare, attacks the bloodstream and is always fatal.
What are the overall effects of the plague?
Value of noble estates declined and manorialism declined. Nobels forced to rent land which increased profit for vassals.
Aristocratic incomes dropped because prices fell
Increase in royal power
Depiction of death in art
Cheapening of human life
Persecution of Jews
Marriage no longer delayed
Limited employment opportunities (especially for women)
Agricultural production decreased
What was the Magna Carta?
Document drawn up by English nobles
King John was forced to sign it
Guaranteed certain basic political rights for people in England
No taxation without representation
Protection of the law.
Increased power of nobles/people and limited the power of the king
Why is William the Conquerer important?
He conquered the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings.
Created what would become modern day England.