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Ancient Egypt

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Harsh Bhatia

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
By Harsh Bhatia
Where is Ancient Egypt?
Thanks for Watching
For thousand years Egyptian civilization was ruled by royal Families. Some of them were very famous in history for their works that they had left behind. The magnificent tombs and monuments that were raised in their honor tell us a lot about their lifestyles and how they belong to that particular era. Pharaohs usually succeed to the throne through royal birth.

Gods & Goddesses
Ancient Egyptian Education
There were schools in ancient Egypt, but hardly anyone went to them. Girls weren't allowed to go to school at all. Whatever they learned, they had to learn at home from their mother or father or from a private tutor (usually a slave) who lived in their house. Very few girls could read or write, and only the richest ones.Most boys didn't go to school either, but a few boys from richer families went to a special school to train boys to be scribes.
Egyptian Pyramids
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of
six civilizations globally to
arise independently.
The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes.There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the 'Great Pyramid'.
How were Pyramids Built
It is believed that thousands of slaves were used to cut up the large blocks and then slowly move them up the pyramid on ramps. The pyramid would get slowly built, one block at a time. Scientists estimate it took at least 20,000 workers over 23 years to build the Great Pyramid of Giza.

The Great Sphinx Of Giza
The Great Sphinx is a large human-headed lion that was carved from a mound of natural rock. It is located in Giza where it guards the front of Khafra's pyramid.The word "sphinx", which means 'strangler', was first given by the Greeks to a fabulous creature which had the head of a woman, the body of a lion and the wings of a bird. In Egypt, there are numerous sphinxes, usually with the head of a king wearing his headdress and the body of a lion.There are, however, sphinxes with ram heads that are associated with the god Amun.

Hieroglyphics is a writing form in Ancient Egypt. English is based on 26 characters--letters. Letters that are combined into words...and then into sentences...which tell a story. Ancient Egyptian writing uses more than 2,000 hieroglyphic characters. Each hieroglyph represents a common object in
ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs could represent
the sound of the object or they could represent
an idea associated with the object. A modern
type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus.
A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be
"sounded out" by reading the sounds symbolized
by the pictures. When these sounds are read
aloud together, the statements often becomes
The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.
Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert. However, they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert.
Process of Mummification
1.Pull brain out of nose using a hook
2.Make a cut on the left side of the body near the tummy
3.Remove all internal organs
.Let the internal organs dry
5.Place the lungs, intestines, stomach and liver inside canopic jars
6.Place the heart back inside the body
7.Rinse inside of body with wine and spices
8.Cover the corpse with natron (salt) for 70 days
9.After 40 days stuff the body with linen or sand to give it a more human shape.
10.After the 70 days wrap the body from head to toe in bandages
11.Place in a sarcophagus (a type of box like a coffin)
Ancient Egyptian Government
In ancient Egypt, the head of government was the Pharaoh. That's because there was only one pharaoh at a time, and the Pharaoh owned everything. You did not own your home or your jewelry or your food or anything else. The Pharaoh owned everything. Each pharaoh had an army, a police force, and a huge number of ministers and government officials to help him rule the country. The most important of these helpers was Pharaoh's right hand man, his Vizier. The Vizier received reports from every top official every day. Every day, the Vizier gave Pharaoh a concise report on what was happening all over Egypt.
Social Roles
Well treated and had considerable legal rights compared to other civilizations
Same legal rights as men (land, property, divorce)
Left women to be economically independent
Primary role was in domestic life
Common title for a married women in ancient Egypt was “nebet per” meaning “the lady of the house”
Bear and raise children

Role of Woman
Role of Men
Head of the family
Men could have numerous wives but economically men had only 1 wife
Laborers, craftsmen
Jobs were hereditary

Labor required for construction projects and was mostly filled by poor, serfs
Stability of Egypt thrived as skilled trades were passed from father to son
Children always learned the trade from parents; seldom could choose occupation

Clothing were usually made from linen of different textures. Men would usually wear a short shirt called kilt and older men would wear a longer kilt. Woman would wear straight fitted dresses held up by straps. During the summer months children would usually run around nude.
Females were ready for marriage at the age of 13-14 while the marrying age for males was 16-20. The male's age would be higher as it was favored for men to be established in order to support their family. Everyone in the society only had one wife which was normal but the king was allowed to have many
Fun Fact
In order to keep blood lines pure, many Pharaohs would marry their sisters or half-sisters
In fact, Pharaoh Akhenatom married his own daughters
The Language
Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt. The earliest known complete sentence in the Egyptian language has been dated to about 2690 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.
Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD. The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced.
Body Adornments
Both men and women alike would always wear some kind of jewelry, pierced their ears, wore armlets, bracelets, and anklets. Amulets and rings would be worn especially to ward off the bad spirits and any possible injury. The rich would wear beaded jewelry made out of gold or silver around their necks while the poor would wear jewelry made out of copper.Men, women, and children would all wear makeup as it was believed that makeup contained magical, and even healing, powers. Some even believed that it could cure poor eyesight!
What were the legal traditions?
Law was governed by religious principle of Ma’at
Goddess Ma'at represented truth, righteousness and justice= balance and order
Laws were applied equally to all classes specifically protected the family (children and wives)
Punishments could be quite severe- act as a deterrent or disgrace the guilty (Examples: minor crimes had 100 lashed; rapist were castrated; corrupt officials had their hands amputated; crimes that resulted in a death sentence could have choice= devoured by a crocodile, suicide, burning alive)

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek).

The Rosetta Stone is written in three scripts because when it was written, there were three scripts being used in Egypt.
The first was hieroglyphic which was the script used for important or religious documents. The second was demotic which was the common script of Egypt. The third was Greek which was the language of the rulers of Egypt at that time.

What is the Rosetta Stone?
Why is it in three different Scrips?
When Was the Rosetta Stone made and found?
The Rosetta Stone was carved in 196 B.C. and found in 1799

Natural Resources
The greatest natural resource in Ancient Egypt was the Nile River that provided fish and transportation. Different types of rock and minerals were quarried in Ancient Egypt.
Gold was the biggest export that was mined in Egypt. Stone was mined far out in the desert quarries were the pyramids were built. Stone was mined far out in the desert quarries where the pyramids were built.
Flint was another important stone for Ancient Egyptian. It was used for making sickles for harvesting crops and making weapons.
Copper was the main metal mostly used in Egypt. Copper comes naturally mixed with other ores. The ore has to be heated to remove the copper from the other elements. The Egyptians used a heating process called melting to remove impurities from the copper.
Flax was a another natural resources that developed in Egypt. Seed were removed, and the core of the plant was placed in water for a week or more. Then they are beat and separated it into parts that were spun into linen cloth.
Egypt lacked good trees for wood due to dryness of the climate. Cedar wood had to be imported from Lebanon to meet the Egyptians' needs.
Egyptian Warfare
The Egyptian military readily adapted enemy weapons and technologies, becoming a powerhouse of the ancient world and on of the great military forces of history.
The Egyptians had the advantage of being ethically and culturally unified, an advantage when it comes to governing.
Egypt's armies were better organized and saw more variety of units containing special shock troops armed with axes or
bows, and shields.
Egyptians battle tactics in the knew
kingdom used revolutionized armies in
which war chariots and various types of
new weapons had been introduced by
Asiatic Hyksos
These armies of highly -trained men had
more striking power and were
commanded by professional officers for
the first time in Egyptian military history
Projectile Weapons
Projectile weapons were used by the ancient Egyptian army, as well as other period military, as standoff weapons, usually used in order to soften up the enemy prior to an infantry assault.
The Throw Stick-
The throw stick does appear to have been used to some extent during Egypt's predynastic period as a weapon, but it seems to have not been very effective for this purpose.
The Spear-
The spear does not fit comfortably into either the close combat class or the projectile type of weapons.it typically consisted of a pointed blade made of copper or flint that was attached to a long wooden shaft by a tang.
Bow and Arrow-
The bow and arrow as one of ancient Egypt's most crucial weapons.Some of the first bows that we know of were the "horn bows", made by joining a pair of antelope horns by a central piece of wood, which were common.

For an ancient Egyptian, entertainment eases up a day's worth of hard work. Egyptians must unwind themselves especially for the poorer classes. The poorer you are, the more you have to break your back!

If you would examine their own pastimes, you may be surprised that they have similar pastimes compared to us. They don't have computers or TVs to brag about. Telling stories, playing sports, and throwing a party does the job pretty well especially in ancient times!
Egyptian Art
Ancient Egyptian art is five thousand years old. It emerged and took shape in the ancient Egypt, the civilization of the Nile Valley. Expressed in paintings and sculptures, it was highly symbolic and fascinating - this art form revolves round the past and was intended to keep history alive.
In a narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2D and 3D art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. It is to be noted that most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over the 3000 year period that represents the ancient civilization without strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.
1) What body of water played a major role in the development of the Ancient Egyptian civilization?
2) Where was Ancient Egypt located?
3) Around how many years did the civilization of Ancient Egypt last?
4) What was a Pharaoh?
played a significant role in the government?
5) What major part of the Ancient Egyptian culture
1. Nile River
2. Northeast Africa
3. 3000 Years
4.The Leader
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