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Education in Prisons
Transcript of Education in Prisons
Prison architecture ‘borrowed’ from America - standard design of long halls with tiers of cells on each side.
Pentonville first prison built to this design (1842).
Turn around in the 20th Century - Everthorpe Prison (1958) importance placed on having rooms for association, classrooms, hobby rooms and workshop space.
Used more modern materials, and offered more lighting with larger windows. Space and Architecture Development of new improved cell blocks with intimate grouping.
Didn't take into account differing needs of different institutions.
Prison grounds considered unimportant.
Overcrowding in prisons means high demand for education and training cannot be accommodated.
Also limits opportunities for working in prison and reduces the possibility of gaining employment on release. Multiculturalism 1B06 - Where People Learn: Educational Institutions and the Way They Work Multiculturalism Aims and Objectives References Adler, J., Burnside, J., Loucks, N. and Tendayi, G. (2008) Measuring Relgion in Prisons: Offenders’ Beliefs and Attitudes, Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 8, 2.
Bhatti, G. (2010), Learning behind bars: Education in Prisons, Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, (1), pp.31-36
Cardiff Centre for Chaplaincy Studies (2011) The Role and Contribution of Multi-Faith Prison Chaplaincy to the Contemporary Prison Service, Cardiff, Cardiff Centre for Chaplaincy Studies.
Criminal Justice Alliance (2012), Crowded Out: The Impact of Prison Overcrowding on Rehabilitation, http://www.criminaljusticealliance.org/Crowded_Out_CriminalJusticeAlliance.pdf, accessed on 8 March 2013.
Edgar, K., Jacobson, J. and Biggar, K. (2011) Time Well Spent: A practical guide to active citizenship and volunteering in prison, London, The Prison Reform Trust.
Foucault, M. (1975) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, New York, Pantheon Books
Hill, M., Sandberg, R. and Doe, N. (2011) Religion and Law in the United Kingdom, Alphen aan den Rijn, Kluwer Law International.
Howard, D.L. (1960) The English Prisons, www.bjc.oxfordjournals.org, accessed on 7 March 2013.
Office for National Statistics (2012) Religion in England and Wales 2011, London, The National Archives.
Prison Studies Project, http://prisonstudiesproject.org/why-prison-education-programs/, accessed on 12 March 2013.
Sloan, J. (2012) Cleanliness, Spaces and Masculine Identity in an Adult Male Prison, Prison Service Journal, 201, p.1-66
The Prison Reform Trust, http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/uploads/documents/Time_to_LearnBook.pdf, accessed on 13 March 2013.
United Nations and UNSECO (1995), Basic Education in Prisons, Baltimore, Maryland State Department of Education Pentonville Prison Everthorpe Prison Firstly considered aims to only be established by the governing bodies.
Realised that the inmates themselves will have had their own aims.
Provides a means of re-directing the prisoners into a more productive use of their time.
Notable change in the way prisoners were acting on a daily basis.
Attitudes were more positive. Before an inmate can take part in a course they must first apply for it.
Gaining access to education is a matter of luck.
Favouritism the way to gain access to education; Policies Some countries stick to the policy that the certificates do not indicate the fact that they were earned whilst in prison.
Reading and writing are offered as separate from other subjects.
Literacy almost obligatory for offenders of low reading age; Popular courses, such as cookery, have waiting lists which prisoners can apply to be on. “it was a matter of who you knew, or who was on duty. The sense of a reliable application procedure, with an understandable system of priorities, was lacking.”
– The Prison Education Trust "The internal arrangement of a building can influence the degree and quality of personal relationships within it to a remarkable degree" (Howard, 1960) "overcrowding is to be deplored…it becomes nigh impossible for a prison service to deliver what is required of it and more particularly, to ensure respect for inmates’ human dignity" (Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture, 2009, cited in Criminal Justice Alliance) “Prison education can open up opportunities, enlighten people, broaden their horizons and build their self-confidence. It can increase their awareness of options, giving them a real choice of a life away from crime. Education can open up the legitimate means of achieving success.”
- The Prison Reform Trust. “Prison education is a means of rehabilitating and re-directing. If you release someone with the same skills with which she came in, she’s going to get involved in the same activities as she did before.”
-The Prison Studies Project Vocational courses are available but poor literacy and numeracy skills will become evident.
Social skills will need to be developed if preparing to go into employment after release. "Basic literacy and numeracy skills are offered to adults who were socially marginalized and economically disadvantaged prior to their imprisonment" (Bhatti, 2010) “increasing numbers of students are using their time to study for examinations” (United Nations and UNESCO, 1995, p.31) Conclusion • Every prison must have a chaplain who is a clergyman of the Church of England (Prison Act, 1952)
• Prisons must be aware of prisoner’s religious beliefs (Hill et al, 2011)
• Increase of non-Anglican non-Christian chaplains
- 357 in total
- 134 Anglican
- 92 Muslim
- 77 Roman Catholic
- 50 Free Church
- 2 Sikh
- 2 Hindu (Cardiff centre for Chaplaincy Studies, 2011) "Prison officers are not there to put an arm around a crying prisoner; it is not what we are or what we do; it undermines our primary role in prison to ensure safety through the control and discipline of the regime. Let the chaplain be their friend; we can’t afford friendships, and certainly can’t afford to ever be seen as a ‘soft touch’"
- Quote from a Prison Officer (Cardiff Centre for Chaplaincy Studies, 2011) "I think the chapel is good to give you some time out away from the situation in a different space to think and reassess. That is how it helped me, and a lot of the girls here who come. It wasn't like oh my God, God is here and has touched me cause I don't believe in God but that the atmosphere was comfortable and I could, like, breathe…"
- Quote from Prisoner (Cardiff Centre for Chaplaincy Studies, 2011) Multiculturalism • Peer Support Schemes
• Community support schemes
• Restorative justice programmes
• Democratic participation in prison life
• Arts and media projects Prison education began in the 1970's but is not comparable to the education that we know today.
Since 1990 education in this institutional context has become more structured.
Today we will explore a brief overview of what is included in prison education. Aims and Objectives In conclusion prison education has evolved from its 70's counterpart into a more commodity based privilege due to privatisation.
We hope to have given you a good overview of the main topics surrounding prison education.
Thank you for listening