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Chapter 4 Muscular Strength and Endurance

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alexis reyes

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4 Muscular Strength and Endurance

Chapter 4 Muscular Strength and Endurance
William Underwood
Melissa Ho
Alexis Reyes
Ashley Arias
Eva Nunez
More than 40% of your body is made up of muscle
Muscles are responsible for every type of movement your body produces
It is important to keep your muscles strong and healthy to perform daily activities , protect you from injury, and enhance your well being.
Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with single maximum effort
Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension
Basic muscle physiology and the effects of strength training
Most skeletal muscle is attached by tendons to bones.
When a muscle shortens, it pulls on the tendon
When a muscle lengthens, the tendon releases and it’s moved back to its normal position
Muscle contains cells called muscle fibers
As for myofibrils , they are made up of sarcomeres that are made of myofilaments

Sarcomeres contain myosin and actin which help to move the muscle
Muscle fibers are made up of smaller protein called myofibrils
Slow- Twitch Muscles
These muscles are fatigue resistant and are oxidative
Fast- Twitch Muscles
These fibers rely on nonoxidative metabolism and tend to be stronger and quick then slow- twitch
Motor Units
Muscles rely on motor units to exert force
Motor unit is a nerve that is connected to one or more muscle fibers
The amount varies from 2-100+
smaller units are involved within slow
twitch fibers , fast-twitch fibers are involved with larger units
Muscle learning is referred to the improvement in the body’s ability to recruit motor units, brought about through strength training.
Benefits of Muscular Strength and Endurance:
-Improved Performance of Physical Activities
-Injury Prevention
-Improved Body Composition
-Enhanced Self-Image and Quality of Life
-Improved Muscle and Bone Health with Aging
-Metabolic and Heart Health
Improved Performance of Physical Activities:
Muscular strength and endurance can make everyday tasks seem so much easier to do with ease. Also, it can make sports a lot more fun. How? Simple. Tasks and sports may seem tiring and like a drag because your muscle aren’t use to being out through that work. Once your muscles have undergone an increase in strength, you will be able to reach higher levels of performance. Thus, making everyday tasks and sports much more enjoyable
Injury Prevention
There are two main ways in which an increase in muscular strength and endurance may prevent you

from any possible injury…
Enabling good posture
Encouraging proper body mechanics during everyday activities
It is said that more than 85% of Americans suffer from low-back pain at some time in their life. Good muscle endurance in the abdomen, hips, lower back, and leg help the spine stay in its proper alignment.

Improved Body Composition
A stable, healthy body composition consists of a high proportion of fat-free mass, mainly muscle, and a small proportion of fat itself.
Metabolic rate is related to muscle. This means that the more muscle mass you have, the higher your metabolic rate; which results in losing fat. Your metabolic may be increased by 15%, depending on your level of training.
Resistance training can also assist in increasing your muscle temperature. This results in the slight increase in the rate at which you burn calories
Enhanced Self-Image and Quality of Life

Lose inches
Increase strength
Develop greater muscle definition
Build larger, stronger muscles
*Testosterone combines wit larger muscles for a strong tissue effect.
Improved Muscle and Bone Health with Aging:
Thanks to research we know that good muscular strength can prevent muscle and nerve degeneration, which can lead to hip fractures as well as other life-threatening injuries.
Sacopenia: condition where people begin to lose muscle mass after the age of 30.
People may begin to notice they’re lack of ability to participate in sports. With progression, everyday tasks become more difficult. By age 75, 25% of men & 75% of women will not be able to lift more than 10lbs above their head.
Osteoporosis: leads to life-threatening fractures, mainly to postmenopausal women.
*Age acts as factor of muscle and bone strength loss but it can be slowed by earlier strength training
Tendons, ligaments, and cartilage cells become stronger and less likely to become injured through muscular strength and endurance training.
Greater self-confidence and self-esteem can be recognized due to strength training. Strength training improves the quality of life by increasing energy, preventing injuries, and making day to day activities easier and more enjoyable.
Metabolic and Heart Health:
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes may be prevented through strength training in the following ways…
Improving glucose metabolism
Increasing maximal blood oxygen consumption
Reducing blood pressure
Increasing HDL cholesterol & reducing LDL cholesterol
Improving blood vessel health
It has been shown that stronger muscles make everyday activities, such as lifting and carrying objects, less demanding on the heart. American Heart Association recommends low-risk cardiac patients, as well as healthy adults, to do strength training 2-3 days per week.

Dynamic involves the muscle contracting and the muscle changing lengths.
Dynamic is the most popular for developing strength
There are two types of Dynamic muscle contractions
Concentric is when the muscle applies force to overcome a resistance and the muscle shortens as it contracts
Eccentric is also known as pliometric contraction and it involves the muscle lengthening as it contracts due to the resistance is greater than the force applied
Two most common dynamic exercise techniques are Constant resistance exercise and Variable resistance exercise

Weight machines versus Free weights
Machines are safer, easier, and more convenient to use
Free weights require more balance and coordination to use. But they strengthen your body to ways that are more adaptable to real life.
Free weights are more popular among athletes
Applying FITT
Frequency Intensity Time and Type
This is the base for creating your own exercise
Frequency of your workout should be at least two days a week. Which allows for your muscles one day of rest. But it can be more than just two days a week.
If you wish to weight train more than it is best to try a split routine which means that one day you work upper body and then the next you work lower body.
Intensity, the resistance picked should be based on your current level of muscular fitness and goals. The weight should be enough that it fatigues your muscles but that you can complete your sets
Creating A Successful Strength Training Program
Static versus Dynamic
Static exercises are also referred to as isometric exercises
In these exercises the muscle contracts but there is no movement
Performing these exercises involves an immovable object or by just tightening a muscle group
Static is not as widely used as Dynamic because they do not develop strength throughout the joints entire range of motion.
Static is more useful after surgery or an injury to strengthen the muscles.
Other Dynamic exercise techniques are Eccentric loading, speed loading, plyometric, and isokinetic
Constant resistance is the use a constant load throughout the joints full range of motion(example, using free weights)
Variable resistance is when the load is changed throughout the exercise to provide maximum load throughout the exercise(example, adding chains and elastic bands to free weights)
Other training methods and equipment
Resistance bands- Elastic or rubber tubes that are cheap and portable and are very adaptable to free weight exercises
Exercise balls- Used mostly for exercising the core but can also exercise the whole body
Pilates- works the strengthening and stretching of the core muscles in the back, abdomen, and buttocks
Calisthenics- Using ones own body weight for resistance
Time- Repetitions and sets are based on what you want to build.
To build strength the weight should be heavy and should have a low number of repetitions
To build endurance it is best to use a light weight for a high number of repetitions
A set for strength would be three sets for the max of three repetitions per set
A set for endurance would be three sets of twelve repetitions per set
Type of workout refers to what muscles you want to improve or build
It is best to make sure you work muscles in the neck, upper and lower back, shoulders, arms, chest, abdomen, thighs, buttocks, and calves
If an athlete is designing a workout program they should make sure that they strengthen the muscles that are used for optimal performance and the muscles that are most likely to get injured.
warm up and cool down
For a warm up it is best to walk or jog for a few minutes and to warm up for the exercise program you plan to do.
For a cool down it is best to relax for five or ten minutes after the workout and then stretch to prevent soreness
Getting Started and Making Progress
When first starting make sure to get adapted to the weight and that you are able to do the sets that you have planned out for yourself.
After you can complete the sets you have made you should use the two for two rule.
This rule inquires that when you complete two additional repetitions for two consecutive workout sessions than you should increase the load.
It is easier to increase and add more weight to large muscle groups exercises than it is small muscle group exercises.
Weight Training Safety
The weight room can be a dangerous place if the proper safety measures and lifting techniques are used.
Every exercise has a form and technique which should be mastered before applying weight and proceeding on with using that lift in your program.
Spotters are necessary in some lifts such as squats and bench to make sure that the weight does not fall on you and so they can help you position the weight before the lift
A clamp or collar should also be used so that the weight does not fall off the bar and fall onto someone's foot
Injuries should also be watched because they can become worse due to lifting weights and may become more serious than they already are
Bench Press
Lye on your back on the bench feet flat on the floor.
Grab bar with palms upward.
Hands shoulder widths apart
Lower bar to your chess, press up in a straight line to the starting position don’t arch back.
You can do the same exact thing with dumbells.
Muscles developed: Pectoralis major, triceps and deltoids
Pull Up
Grab bar with both palms forward
Elbows extended fully
Pull upward until chin is above bar, return to starting position.
Muscles developed: Latissimus dorsi, biceps
Shoulder press
Can be done standing up or sitting down
Begin with weight at chest or on rack
Grasp weight, palms away from you
Push weight overhead until arms are extended
Don’t arch back excessively
Lateral Raise
Stand with feet shoulder width apart
Dumbbell in each hand
Hold dumbbells in front of you parallel to each other.
With elbows slightly bent, slowly lift weights until they reach shoulder level
Keep wrists in neutral position in line with forearms return to starting position.
Muscles developed: Deltoids
Lat Pull
Grasp bar of the machine with arms fully extended.
Slowly pull the weight down until it reaches the top of your chest slowly return to starting position
Weight Training exercises
Muscles developed: Deltoid, triceps, trapezius
Bench press (Chest/
Vertical press)
Face feet on floor or foot supporters
Hips back and buttocks should be pressed against machine pads
Grasp handles with palms away from you.
Handles should be aligned with your armpits
Push arms until your arms are fully extended but don’t lock your elbows.
Return to starting position.
Gender differences in muscular strength
Men have more mass than women, but they do not necessarily have more muscular endurance
Dietary Supplements
due to
hormonal differences
women do not develop big muscles unless they train intensively over many years.
women can build muscle though , through strength training . They just won't develop the type of bulky muscle men can or a significant amount of weight increase
both men and women can increase strength through strength training.Women may not be able to lift as much but they have the same capacity to gain strength in men .
Assessing muscular strength and muscular endurance
Muscular Strength
: is measured by the amount of weight a person can lift one time
muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle group to contract over long periods of time
hormones , training , genetics

and other variables may influence muscular endurance between both genders
more muscle mass
more testosterone (builds lean body mass/muscle)
less muscle mas
more estrogen , less testosterone
are freely marketed without testing for safety or effectiveness
drugs and dietary supplements are marketed differently
FDA only takes action on unsafe supplements after the product reaches the market
product quality and potency cannot be guaranteed
dietary supplements do not out perform wholesome food & good training
(this is called repetition maximum (RM)
Muscular Endurance :
is measured by counting the maximum number of repetitions of an exercise a person can do or the maximum amount of time a person can hold a muscular contraction
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