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Historical Approaches to Psychology

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Alexia Kunkle

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Historical Approaches to Psychology

Historical Approaches to Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt

What are the basic elements
or structure of consciousness?

Two basic elements-

Objective Sensations-
Touch, taste, sight, etc

Subjective Feelings-
emotional responses, mental images

Functionalism
1890 America
William James

Consciousness cannot be
broken into parts.

What is the purpose or function
of of behavior and mental
process?

"Stream of Consciousness"

There is no separation between elements-
Objective and Subjective flow together


Psychologists today do not usually identify with only one of these approaches, but do use some principles of many approaches
History of Psychology
Ancient Greece
Greek Philosophers asked their students to "look within" =
Introspection
Scientific approach-human behavior (like the movement of sun and stars) is subject to certain rules and laws
Hippocrates theorized that Psychological problems are caused by brain abnormalities

Over 2000 years ago Socrate's students were asked to "know thyself."

Psychology was born!
Behaviorism
America-1913
John Watson

Psychology must be limited to
observable, measurable events.

Behaviorists put emphasis on
the external behavior of people and their reactions to given situations.

Consciousness cannot be studied

Behaviorism with Reinforcement
America-1950's
B.F. Skinner

As a Behaviorist he agreed with
Watson. Behavior is shaped by
Reinforcement

Operant Conditioning uses both
positive and negative reinforcements
to shape or change behavior
Gestalt School
Germany 1920's
Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler

Gestalt means to shape or form
How does context influence perception?

Rejected both Structuralism (experience cannot be broken down into parts) and Behaviorism (psychology cannot only be about observable external behavior)

Example: Problem solving cannot just be "taught" by mechanical repetition. It requires
insight
- A re-organization of perceptions that enables an individual to solve a problem
Medieval Times
Dark Ages for Psychology
Psychological problems were caused by possession by Demons!!!
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Diagnosed using the WATER TEST!
Renaissance
Scientific Revolution
Birth of Modern Psychology

Scientific thought applied to
human behavior.
Scientific process applied to the study of psychology
Structuralism
1870 Germany
http://www.123opticalillusions.com/
What unconscious motives and
internal conflicts determine
human behavior?

Unconscious processes, especially sexual and aggressive urges, are more important than conscious experience


Freudian slips and dreams reveal
unconscious motives or desires
Who dat?
http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2015/01/09/376084137/trapped-in-his-body-for-12-years-a-man-breaks-free?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=shotshealthnews
What is consciousness, anyway?
Full transcript