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Historical Approaches to Psychology
Transcript of Historical Approaches to Psychology
What are the basic elements
or structure of consciousness?
Two basic elements-
Touch, taste, sight, etc
emotional responses, mental images
Consciousness cannot be
broken into parts.
What is the purpose or function
of of behavior and mental
"Stream of Consciousness"
There is no separation between elements-
Objective and Subjective flow together
Psychologists today do not usually identify with only one of these approaches, but do use some principles of many approaches
History of Psychology
Greek Philosophers asked their students to "look within" =
Scientific approach-human behavior (like the movement of sun and stars) is subject to certain rules and laws
Hippocrates theorized that Psychological problems are caused by brain abnormalities
Over 2000 years ago Socrate's students were asked to "know thyself."
Psychology was born!
Psychology must be limited to
observable, measurable events.
Behaviorists put emphasis on
the external behavior of people and their reactions to given situations.
Consciousness cannot be studied
Behaviorism with Reinforcement
As a Behaviorist he agreed with
Watson. Behavior is shaped by
Operant Conditioning uses both
positive and negative reinforcements
to shape or change behavior
Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler
Gestalt means to shape or form
How does context influence perception?
Rejected both Structuralism (experience cannot be broken down into parts) and Behaviorism (psychology cannot only be about observable external behavior)
Example: Problem solving cannot just be "taught" by mechanical repetition. It requires
- A re-organization of perceptions that enables an individual to solve a problem
Dark Ages for Psychology
Psychological problems were caused by possession by Demons!!!
Diagnosed using the WATER TEST!
Birth of Modern Psychology
Scientific thought applied to
Scientific process applied to the study of psychology
What unconscious motives and
internal conflicts determine
Unconscious processes, especially sexual and aggressive urges, are more important than conscious experience
Freudian slips and dreams reveal
unconscious motives or desires
What is consciousness, anyway?