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Transcript of Peterhead
AHMAD BAGULEY - n9471146
Peterhead is a regional town located within the City of Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
The town is located in the north, at the easternmost point of mainland Scotland. Being built beside the sea has inexorably and directly informed its urban development as a harbour town.
The development of its harbours has been fundamental to the well being of Peterhead and allows it to remain active today as an important base for fishing and oil related activities.
Throughout this Project, the development of the city is being looked at over time with a constant reference to the present day coastal outline. By doing this I could see how the city has grown and appropriated more of the surrounding land as industries changed and expanded.
Peterhead built its wealth not only on fishing but whaling, sealing, granite quarrying and other industries. The harbours, maritime and built heritage are the town's principal tourism assets. Recent initiatives include investments in the Peterhead Bay area through new industries, which have included the berthing of cruise ships in the harbour. A new phase of growth was initiated in the 70s with Peterhead becoming a major oil industry service centre and at this time, considerable land holdings were allocated for industrial development.
From its foundation, there has been a dynamic relationship between the town and the harbour as a major working focus for Peterhead. At present, however, there appear to be conflicting priorities between the needs of the industrialised port and the conservation demands that would aim to enhance and restore the setting of the historic part of Peterhead.
Besides trying to restore the historic areas of Peterhead, the economic renewal has become an important factor in trying to promote tourism and increase the population in the region. The 2011 Census indicates that Peterhead has the highest population in Aberdeenshire with 18,537 people.
POPULATION AND DENSITY
However a key notion is the increasing number of older residents. The Aberdeenshire Council profile highlights that Peterhead is a depressed area, which has been badly hit by the decline in the fishing industry and has faced major pressures with the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, drawdown of Royal Air Force station and uncertainty over Peterhead Prison which are all situated south of Peterhead.
Peterhead was first developed between Long Gate and the sea with surrounding streets and lanes built up by the beginning of the 18th Century. The area to the south grew as Peterhead developed as a spa town in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. 19th Century growth and prosperity created many additions to the building stock within the area. Each of these broad building periods created distinctive building styles. The plan of 1739, shows the development of the south harbour. In 1705 an Act of the Privy Council was designed to raise funds for Peterhead harbours.
Between 1770 and 1807, the south harbour was extended with the addition of the south pier. In 1822 a new north Harbour was designed and completed. The two harbours were linked in 1850. During the 18th century and early 19th century it rose to prominence in Scotland as a fashionable watering place and spa. The plan of 1805 shows the increase of various amusements for visitors. However, from the 1840’s the popularity of the spa had declined. The plan attributes this to a decrease in the quality and quantity of the water; the rise of the whale and herring fishing and competition from other health resorts.
From around 1810-20 the situation changed and fishing became increasingly important. By 1832 there was a significant fleet which by the 1870’s had risen to over 700. However, after the First World War there was a reduction in the number of boats but an increase in the catch as the boats became larger. Following the interruption of the war, fishing resumed but never reached the same levels as before. In the 1868 plan it shows the development was focussed towards expanding the city including the introduction of a railway.
Current perceptions are that Peterhead had built its wealth on fishing. However, this was not originally the situation. Inevitably much trade was related to the sea and fishing, but other industry existed. Peterhead ‘was noted for its ale’ as early as 1732. There were three breweries in existence in 1896. It also had been identified with the cloth weaving industry from an early date with weaver’s societies long before it had fishermen’s societies’. The granite mining industry in Peterhead also developed earlier with several quarries operated in the late 19th Century. Granite polishing was established in 1861. Several industries developed in the early 20th century in relation to the maritime activity of the town – rope works, barrel making, ‘compressed provisions and preserving works’, bone crushing and fish manure works.
From the beginnings of the settlement of Peterhead, the small central area more recently called the ‘Outstanding Conservation Area’ was purposely developed as a pattern of streets with little public open space other than Broad Street. In the recent past, the only open space that has been created in the city centre was through the demolition of an area of narrow streets, to form a car park. Besides that, the expansion on the residential areas outside seems to be the most prominent.
Peterhead built its wealth not only on fishing but whaling, sealing, granite quarrying and other industries and significantly around the end of the 18th century and early 19th century it rose to prominence in Scotland as a fashionable watering place and spa. From around 1810-20 the situation changed and fishing became increasingly important. By 1832 there was a significant fleet. By the 1870’s this had risen to over 700, peaking in 1882 with 882 herring boats. Whaling declined throughout the latter part of this period.
⁻ Peterhead’s Harbours
Much of the character of Peterhead is defined by the extensive harbours, now occupying all of the space between the two original islands and the mainland.
⁻ Maritime Industries
Maritime trade, whaling, sealing and fishing developed over a long period and have given Peterhead much of its character today.
⁻ Whaling and Sealing
By 1788 Peterhead had established itself in Greenland Whaling and became the main port for whaling and sealing in Great Britain. Many whaling ships were built in Peterhead. The whaling industry declined in Peterhead from around 1857 as Dundee became the pre-eminent whaling port.
⁻ Fishing/Herring Fishing
Fishing played an important part in the life of the post reformation town, but more for local consumption and more related to white fish. However fishing was actively discouraged between 1750 and 1815 as the smell was not conducive to the town’s role as a fashionable spa town. From around 1810-20 the situation changed and fishing became increasingly important.
The rise of Peterhead as a shipbuilding town accompanied its expansion in whaling and fishing. Apart from early small scale boat building, many of the larger vessels were built during the 19th Century, but by 1880 shipbuilding had declined and was ‘practically defunct’.
Besides the industrial and spa factors that are major’s aspects in the town’s development and history, the building of its harbours has been fundamental to the economic wellbeing of Peterhead and they remain active today as an important base for fishing and oil related activities.
The Forma Urbis of Peterhead shows the overall form and development of the town. Influenced by the surrounding sea, and the harbour that is established along the edge. It illustrates the harbour as a significant urban condition that borders the main city settlement and directly influenced its urban form.
The relationship existing between the city’s Modern Forma Urbis and its historical beginnings, further expands on the idea that Peterhead’s modern city pattern is developing away from the the original creation at the edge of the harbour, by building outwards. Instead of the city growing along major transport routes and towards connecting cities, it seems to just be growing from the base which conveniently reforms around the roads.
The Forma Urbis of Peterhead also demonstrates how it has been influenced by the routes within the town and connecting outside of it.
By applying Kevin Lynch’s urban theory regarding the urban condition of Edges (2011), the nature of these roads deliberately act as edges separating the city’s surrounding residential districts to the city centre which is called the ‘Outstanding Conservation Area’. It can be determined that these major roads were deliberately designed away from the city centre to enhance and restore the setting of the historic part of Peterhead.
Peterhead is significant and a very good example of a well-preserved seafaring town. It has a well-defined and prominent coastal setting and a harbour of national significance which is integral to the town. The street pattern is significant in that it remains much as the original. It is uniquely significant in terms of the extent of surviving, authentic fabric built as a result of substantial 18th century growth as a spa town and a commercially successful town in other ways.
The Outstanding Conservation Area is made up of several areas, each with a distinctive character. The boundary of the area includes the old town and excludes some areas which contribute to its character, like the Maiden Street area and harbour edge. The Outstanding Conservation Area will be heavily explored.
Historically, the Outstanding Conservation Area developed as a small set of streets with little or no public open spaces. Of the harbour and coastline, these spaces continues to play a major role in defining the character of the area, however they did not originally exist. The fact that some open space has been created around the edge of the area in the recent past indicates a breakdown of the historic urban pattern rather than any positive development. Currently there are several public and open spaces, most are either Greenspaces that include a central park and sporting fields or public space used as a car parks.
From ancient times, towns and cities have been classified into those which grow organically or planned. Peterhead appears to be one of those cities being formed from a random allotment of planned areas. One of the key distinctions involves the speed at which it develops as it is much more slowly than those which are planned. The three sections represent each stage of growth, initially showing the town was formed quite quickly, then partly shaped from the base of the main roads and after some time expanding further out in the outer residential areas.
ORGANIC VS PLANNED
Peterhead is a mix of industrial and maritime activity, with other emerging industries included. The city continues to play an industrial and commercial role due to offshore oil drilling which surrounds the harbour area. Closer examination of the city pattern reveals clear irregularities within the urban grid that seemingly intersect the surrounding principle of the town. Their larger plot sizes and sparsely distributed road networks directly contrast the compact urban grain of the surrounding residential pattern.
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL
Peterhead is a city known for its industry and maritime activities, but is also a centre of education and religion. The abundant formally shaped urban grids have organically spread out from the more informal urban grid within the city centre, further signifying this area as the location of Peterhead’s Outstanding Conservation Area.
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL
A route exists for traffic to pass around Peterhead for journeys that originate or end elsewhere, and the Outstanding Conservation Area and the harbour itself is a major commercial traffic generator. A route to the harbour is signposted at the entrance to the town, directing traffic around the north of the area. However most commercial traffic uses the more direct route along the southern perimeter of the area to reach destinations in the harbour. The main routes are constructed away from the city centre to preserve the historical detail, and a major bike trail has been constructed where the railways once was. Other smaller routes have been developed along the town with a busy road surrounding the town like a boundary.
Figure ground map was useful in understanding the separation of lots and the regulating boundaries of the town and how it was constructed. It was useful in getting a quick overview to the size of buildings in different areas. The area bordering the outstanding Conservation Area depicts mainly residential or farmland precincts. The exterior residential areas are less dense and it seems they were organically grown, whereas the thick cluster of small buildings located in the heart of the town next to the harbour depicts planned industrial and commercial areas that surround the central business district of Peterhead.
Although much of the building stock in the area is residential there is a surprising diversity of other uses. Over 100 businesses or non-domestic uses exist, including warehouse and storage, maritime, retail, commercial, and office accommodation. Within the area, the decline in retail and reduction in commercial activity has created an appearance of decline and decay.
The Outstanding Conservation Area is made up of a number of areas, each with a distinctive character. The boundary of the conservation area is around the core of the old town and excludes some areas which contribute to its character. Although the harbour lies outside the area, the relationship between them is one of the defining characteristics. The conservation area includes actions and historical activities of significance.
OUTSTANDING CONSERVATION AREA
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Constitutional List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest.
Peterhead’s Functional Analysis depicts the city’s main diverse maritime and industrial district which is surrounded by an abundance of residential areas along with open spaces and farmland or undeveloped areas. In addition, the multifunctional role of industrial and maritime activities of the city centre, incorporating commercial, community, educational and religious facilities further explain how Peterhead is a regional hub. The similarity of building sizes and heights within the city centre also demonstrate the connection between the functions of the city.
Specifically, there are several large industrial buildings throughout the area. These were probably related originally to maritime uses with some used for textile manufacturing in Peterhead although this industry has not been linked to specific buildings. While today some have been converted to residential use most remain as commercial buildings. This commercial or non-domestic use is more abundant and in many ways is more compatible with the character of these buildings than for residential use.
Along the harbour side, a few buildings remain with uses related to the harbour, although these tend to be offices. Marischal Street and the west part of Broad Street connect directly to the main retail area of Peterhead to the north west of the Outstanding Conservation Area, and several retail businesses appear to survive well.
Elsewhere, the area shows a clear decline in the small retail business sector. Several shops, such as a local butcher and a local general store have ceased trading in recent years. Several former commercial premises now accommodate other uses, including the youth café, several offices and other non-retail uses. Bank buildings were clearly once more prominent in the town centre. Some of these were built as imposing buildings. There is a significant amount of office accommodation, which includes the large Government offices and the most significant hotel use-the St Andrews Hotel.
There is a rich stock of buildings from the late 18th century including the Town House which is about 3-storey, has 5-window, a pediment and steeple and a granite ashlar front. Originally it had stairs to the 1st floor.
Along Broad Street prominent commercial buildings appeared in the 19th Century including the former Clydesdale Bank built in 1840 which has some fine detailing to an otherwise simple composition. The earlier bank was later outshone by the grand edifice of the National Commercial Bank
The Commercial Bank at 28 Broad Street. Described to have an Italian style is 3-stories with a quoin angle for the corner street, single storey parts flank windows in the centre with arched 1st floor windows.
Peterhead’s churches were originally built to the west of the conservation area and due to re-locations and additional building, that area became known as ‘Kirktown’. St Mary’s Catholic Church was built in 1850 by Bishop James Kirk. It has granite walls and a slate roof and is still in ecclesiastical use
Also being built outside the conservation area, Laing’s Parish Church of 1804-6 was built in a commanding position at the entrance, just out of the conservation area. Parish Church steeples resemble those of the old castle on Keith Inch. Views into the area define the connection from the harbour and the sea. Historically and architecturally it is of national importance.
The Episcopalians was built a church in Merchant Street in 1814. With a Gothic style, it has squared granite rectangle with apse to street added and interior rearranged 1905
⁻ Maritime setting ; the setting of the area is defined by its relationship with the harbour and sea.
⁻ Significance of the harbour and breakwaters ; the harbour edge has had a defining relationship in terms of the historical development and character of the town.
⁻ Significance of maritime industries ; the role of the town in serving the maritime industries led to significant historic development.
⁻ Significance of 18th Century development ; Peterhead came to prominence as a spa town and the significance of this period cannot be overstated. The number, range and quality of the buildings define much of the character of the Outstanding Conservation Area.
⁻ Significance of early development ; earlier development was also important in creating the street pattern and some significant areas of development.
⁻ Authenticity ; the key townscape elements survive largely intact as a significant, authentic pattern of historic development.
Peterhead Outstanding Conservation Area is the inner city area which excludes any part of the harbour and some streets and parts of the old town. Different parts of the area are related to different periods and types of development. The descriptions of the building elements and views into and out of the area explain the nature and qualities of each part of the area. It became clear that different parts of the area could be considered as their own characters. The character areas are summarised as;
⁻ Broad Street ; Broad Street is the only significant public space within the defined area and its historic civic function with related business, legal and banking uses has created a well-defined semi-formal character appropriate to its status as a prominent regional town.
⁻ The Harbour Edge ; the old town of Peterhead cannot be separated from the harbour either visually or in terms of its history. Even as the nature and scale of maritime activities continue to change, the relationships persist
⁻ Central Core ; This central area has its own distinct character derived from the original development. While some commercial use intruded in the form of warehouse buildings, the unifying effect of the materials used and respect for the original street patterns have not detracted from the area.
⁻ The west end ; a more difficult area to define but at the same time important in that it is on the approach to, and forms the built edge of, the Outstanding Conservation Area It is the boundary walls and the relationship with the sea and the presence of the fish processing factory.
⁻ Maiden Street ; A large part of Maiden Street forms an excellent terrace of good quality granite built dwellings. The north side of the street has been lost through demolition to form a car park.
EXTENSION OF BOUNDRY
A Buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type.
B Buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered.
C Buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B.
1.RELIGIOUS 2.BANK 3.SUBWAY 4.EDUCATION 5.HOTEL 6.WAREHOUSE 7.WORKS
8.OFFICE 9.MARTIME 10.SERVICES 11.BATH HOUSE 12.DEPOT 13. CASUAL 14.TEMPLE
15.POLICE STATION 16.TOWN HOUSE
Peterhead’s Morphological Analysis depicts the direct relationship existing between the city’s harbour and industries. When going into the specific morphology of the buildings it really delves into the periods that have created distinctive styles and characteristics:
The built forms within this area of Peterhead was selected for analysis through the 3d model due to its range of architectural forms, densities, and key functions typical within the Outstanding Conservation Area. The model incorporates levels of interactivity layers and forms at different scales and a legend showing key building functions. These key buildings can be explored by using the Augmented application supplementary with the written analysis that describes these key findings within the analysis of the Prezi.
⁻ Early buildings, before 1750
It is consistent with the development of long, thin ‘burgess plots’, but are mainly designated ‘gardens’ or ‘enclosed ground’.
⁻ Late 18th Century
Warehouse Buildings - were the trade of the town and are represented by some fine former storage buildings and other commercial use buildings
Domestic Buildings - have a significant number of good quality from the 18th Century, which are characterised by simple, robust detailing, usually granite, pleasing proportions and a comfortable scale.
⁻ Early 19th Century, before 1840
Commercial Development - in terms of buildings for the maritime industry gave rise to substantial developments. Most of the buildings are characterised as warehouse buildings and are still in commercial use and demonstrates the flexibility in their form.
Domestic Buildings - A number of substantial, good quality houses were built in the early 19th Century. The scale generally increased and details became more sophisticated with granite being more finely cut and dressed and some architectural detail appearing.
⁻ Later 19th Century to early 20th Century
The Town Plan of 1868 shows quite an increase in density. Much of this appears to be by the filling in of spaces between buildings and in the back-court areas, although change and redevelopment continued to occur.
Domestic Buildings are in pleasing composition, in the old traditional style and being 2 storey. The building style makes a significant contribution to the urban grain of the area and is located at a prominent corner.
⁻ 20th Century buildings
The 20th Century was a period where more loss of buildings occurred than replacement. In many cases this loss has been seriously detrimental to the character of the area, where gap sites or car parks have been formed.
HIGH DENSE RESIDENTIAL
LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
FIELDS AND GREEN SPACES
BUILDING FIGURE GROUND
URBAN SECTION 1
URBAN SECTION 2
URBAN SECTION 1
URBAN SECTION 2
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