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Genetics-General, Non-Mendelian, Human, & Technology

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Adrienne Towns

on 10 January 2016

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Transcript of Genetics-General, Non-Mendelian, Human, & Technology

Genetics
Mendel & the peas
Monohybrid Crosses & Probability
Probability: the likelihood that a particular event will occur
Monohybrid crosses (punnett squares): used to predict the possible gene combination from a genetic cross
used to determine inheritance of 1 gene
Independent Assortment & Dihybrids
Mendel used dihybrids to determine independent assortment
Dihybrid cross: shows possible outcomes of a cross using two traits
Beyond Dominant and Recessive
Some alleles are not dominant or recessive, and some are controlled by multiple alleles or genes
Molecular Technology
Human Heredity
The Human Genome Project is ongoing research to analyze the human DNA sequence
Goals:
identify and map every gene to its c'some
determine entire DNA sequence for human genome
Mendel's Law's
1) Law (Principle) of Dominance
-some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Multiple alleles
Genes that have more than 2 alleles
More than two alleles are possible in population not that an organism can have more than 2 alleles
Blood type is codominance and multiple alleles!
Polygenic traits
Traits controlled by 2 or more genes
Can't do a test cross to determine!
Incomplete dominance
One allele is not completely dominant to another
Leads to blending of two traits in heterozygotes
Two different alleles for each trait!
Codominance
Both alleles are present in phenotype
Artificial Selection
Selective breeding: only organisms with desirable traits are allowed to mate or are mated
Done with plants, animals, microorganisms
Cloning
Creates a member of a population of genetically identical cells made from 1 cell
Bacteria are easy to clone larger organisms not so much
DNA Fingerprinting
Analyzes sections of DNA that have little to no function, but vary greatly from person to person.
This allows identification of a person
Cell Transformation
External DNA is put into a cell and becomes part of the cell's DNA
Done in bacteria, plants, and animals
Creates genetically modified organisms (GMO's)
Sex Linked Traits
(also called X-linked)
Genes located on the X or Y c'somes
Sex c'somes determine sex (male or female)
Female=XX & Male=XY
Karyotypes
A picture of 23 paired c'somes (46 total)
Two types of c'somes:
autosomes: 44 c'somes not related to sex
Pedigrees
Shows inheritance of traits in a family
Dominant pedigree: one parent is affected in each generation
Recessive pedigree: trait skips generations
Disorders
Disorders can be caused by:
Dominant alleles: 1 or 2 alleles cause disorder, only homozygous recessive individuals do not have it
Achondroplasia: form of dwarfism
Huntington's disease: nervous system disorder

the study of heredity
Vocabulary
trait: specific characteristic (ex: seed color)
gene: unit of heredity (ex: eye color
allele: variations of a gene (ex: blue or green eye color)
DOMINANT: trait that masks the recessive trait
recessive: trait that is shown if 2 are present

Monk who is father of genetics
Studied pea plants
Mendel Recap
Inheritance is determined by genes
http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_int_creatednafp2/
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072835125/126997/animation40.html
Bacterial Transformation
Transformed using recombinant DNA
Foreign DNA joined with plasmid
plasmid: circular DNA molecule
Used in conjugation of bacteria
Plant Cell Transformation
Same process as bacteria, or DNA injected directly
Used for food supply
Plant GMO's
corn, rice, grapples
Animal Cell Transformation
Foreign DNA injected into egg cells then similar process as bacteria and plants
Animal GMO's
Chicken, beef, pork (the bigger the better)
Used to study disease effects (ex: mice)
Pets (glow kitties)

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/
HeTeRoZyGoUs: has one dominant trait and one recessive trait (also called a hybrid)
homozygous: has 2 dominant or 2 recessive traits (ex: BB or bb)
genotype: genetic make up of organism (ex: BB- homozygous dominant)
phenotype: physical characteristic of organism (ex: BB=brown, bb=white)
affected by genotype and environment!
2) Law of Segregation
-separation of alleles during gamete formation
-each gamete contains 1 allele for each gene
3) Law of Independent Assortment
-genes for different traits segregate independently in gamete formation
If 2 or more alleles of a gene for a single trait one is dominant to the other
Two copies of each gene from parents segregate when gametes are formed
Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of one another
Hybridization: crossing non-similar organisms to combine the best of each
Inbreeding: continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Common in dogs, cats, horses
Can cause problems in organism
Used to link criminals to crime scenes (forensics)
Can use blood, bodily fluid, & other materials
Used to make human medications (ex: insulin)
Dolly was the 1st animal cloned
She had a baby showing that clones were fertile
Cows, pigs, mice, and other mammals have been cloned
Scientists are trying to clone extinct species
VERY controversial in humans !
sex c'somes: 2 c'somes that determine sex
female: XX and male XY
50:50 ratio of male or female
Females only give X, males give X or Y determining gender
Shows abnormalities (extra or missing c'somes)
Recessive alleles: need 2 recessive alleles to have disorder
Cystic Fibrosis: digestive and breathing issues
Sex-linked: disorder carried on X or Y c'somes
If on X males most likely to get it, if on Y only males get it
Colorblindness: can't see certain or all colors
Monohybrid Ratios
Two types of ratio:
genotypic-
homo. dominant: hetero.: homo. recessive
Ratio's for dihybrids:
Count the organisms and put them in the following order.
Dominant/Dominant: Dominant/recessive: recessive/Dominant: recessive/recessive
phenotypic-
dominant allele: recessive allele
Many genetic disorders related to sex linked traits
More X-linked than Y-linked
Colorblindness, Hemophilia, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
How to spot Incomplete Dominance
The offspring is showing a 3rd phenotype (red flower, white flower, and pink flower)
The trait in the offspring is a blend (mixing) of the parental traits (red x white = pink)
How to Spot Codominance
Two equally dominant alleles are expressed at the same time.
Heterozygous phenotype will have both phenotypes visible
Full transcript