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Christa Bergquist

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of REASONING

Common Definitions
Background Information
Dorsolateral frontal cortex
working memory, executive functioning, planning reasoning intuition
Frontal operculum (Broca's)
speech, language, understanding
Orbitofrontal cortex
cognitive processing, decision making
The Frontal Lobe
Animals vs. Humans
Let's Play A Game!
Reasoning as a WOK
Types of Reasoning
Absolute Truths
Truth is what really is out there.
Reality is objective.

Truth and Reason
Arguments – set of statements which some (premises) are offered in a support of another (conclusion).
Logic tells something about our natural language; it creates an artificial language
Propositional Logic: represents statements or sentences. Assigned as “P” or “Q”
Predicate Logic: subject-description sentence. x= subject “F” or “G”= description
Deductive reasoning: proving conclusion’s validity by it premises
e.g. It’s raining, if it’s raining then the ground is wet, therefore the ground is wet
Propositional Logic: translation: P; If P, then Q; Q
e.g. Socrates is a man; All men are mortals; therefore, Socrates is mortal
Logic and Reasoning
The drawing of inferences or conclusions the the use of reason. - Merriam-Webster
The PROCESS of thinking about something in order to make a decision. -Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus
Used to describe the frustrating or baffling result of a procedure when you aren’t sure or confident that you have a valid explanation. - Urban Dictionary
Anatomy of the Brain
Do animals reason?
Cal Tech Study
MRI scans of a human brain show the regions significantly associated with decision-making in blue, and the regions significantly associated with behavioral control in red.
On the left is an intact brain seen from the front, the colored regions are both in the frontal lobes.
On the left is an intact brain seen from the front, the colored regions are both in the frontal lobes.
Frontal Lobe Development
Research suggests that teens' brains aren’t fully developed until late adolescence. Studies suggest that connections between neurons affecting emotional, physical and mental abilities are incomplete. (Strauch, 2003)
During adolescence – They continue to develop advanced reasoning skills: More logical thought process that will often involve the question …. “What if...?”
Frontal Lobe Disorders, Injuries, and Diseases
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
Symptoms: Inattentive and/or hyperactive/impulsive behavior.
Frontal lobe volume is smaller in persons with ADHD. Brain regions involved in self regulation (executive function) shows differences from those of controls.
Symptoms: Hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, and unusual speech or behavior.
Tests showed that blood flow was lower in frontal/pre-frontal regions in afflicted people when compared to non-afflicted people.
Believed to be caused by a combination of factors including genetic make-up, pre-natal viruses, and early brain damage.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
Symptoms: Tendency towards emotional liability, aggression and violent outbursts.
Progressive neurodegeneration resulting from repeated sub-lethal brain trauma.
Significant atrophy of the frontal lobe as well as the parietal and temporal lobes.

REASON, Memory, Imagination, Faith, Emotion, Intuition, Language
Sense Perception, Language, Memory

You have 2 normal U.S. coins that add up to 35 cents. One of the coins is not a quarter. What are the two coins?
How much dirt is in a hole 4 feet deep and 2 feet wide?
What can run but never walks, has a mouth but never talks, has a head but never weeps, has a bed but never sleeps?
There is a man lying dead in his office. He is alone and the doors and windows are locked from the inside. There are no marks on him. There is no blood. There is a sealed envelope on his desk. How did he die?
Examples of Good Reasoning? Poor Reasoning?
Relative truths
Everything is subject to human interpretation.
We are forced, whether we want to or not, to see the world from our own partial and therefore restricted perspective.
Savant - Daniel Tammet

Mathematics and Reason
Extension to or from logics
Absolute truths, 2+2=4; a triangle has 180 degrees
Pythagoras: Math is everywhere
Mathematics as beauty
Do numbers/mathematics exist in physical form?
Other Types of Reasoning
Analogical reasoning
Creative reasoning
Sense Perception
Language, Sense Perception
The Enlightenment
Historical occurrence circa 17th to 18th centuries
Also known as the “Age of Reason”
Reason over powered superstition
Famous Philosophers: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Smith, Newton, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot and Kant
Enlightenment Philosophies influenced both American (1776) & French (1789) Revolutions
“What is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant; Enlightenment Age versus Age of Enlightenment
Immanuel Kant’s “What is Enlightenment?”
“Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance. Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) "Have the courage to use your own understanding," is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.”
“When we ask, Are we now living in an enlightened age? the answer is, No, but we live in an age of enlightenment. As matters now stand it is still far from true that men are already capable of using their own reason in religious matters confidently and correctly without external guidance. Still, we have some obvious indications that the field of working toward the goal [of religious truth] is now opened. What is more, the hindrances against general enlightenment or the emergence from self-imposed nonage are gradually diminishing. In this respect this is the age of the enlightenment and the century of Frederick [the Great].”
Reason and Emotion
Reasoning can be a valuable way of knowing when trying to avoid the influence of emotion. Thinking logically, using rational arguments, and making comparisons between options can help to bring perspective to situations that might otherwise be clouded by emotion. However, the logical choice is not always the best choice. As humans, we have emotions. This means that sometimes the logical choice will not lead to an outcome that is either acceptable or desired for those involved.
Rationalism in Faith
Can faith be rational?
The sacrifice of Isaac [ Abraham’s son]
Rationality that crosses domain to religious duties
Biggest Question: was Abraham a hero or murderer?

Soren Kierkegaard
“Leap of Faith”
Hegelian Method: Aesthetics, Morality & Reason, & Religious duties
Empiricists vs. Rationalists
Empiricism – Primarily on sensory experiences; data collected by evidence
e.g. Locke – Tabula Rosa “Blank-State” / Mind is like paper
Rationalism – Primarily on reason; self-evident facts
e.g. Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz
Rationalism, innate ideas vs. Empiricism, non-innate ideas
Descartes’ Cogito Ergo Sum “I think therefore I am”
James Rose, Manny Castillo, Christa Bergquist
Full transcript