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Adult learning成人學習

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Huichen Chang

on 23 June 2016

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Transcript of Adult learning成人學習

Andragogy
Instrumental learning 器械式學習
Communicative Learning
溝通式學習
不同於器械式學習的著重操控外在環境,溝通式學習牽涉到透過語言、藝術與肢體動作進行對他人的了解。 2.有別於器械式學習對真相(現象)的學習,它牽涉到價值觀、道德與情感的學習(M1994): To establish the validity/justification for personal beliefs. 但常常經不起實驗法(科學)檢驗
Paths
Debate
rational discourse
knowledge generation(tacit level to explicit knowledge)知識的產出
Emancipatory
(transformational) Learning 觀點轉化式學習,解脫式學習
Adult learning成人學習
Basic types of learning:
Classical conditioning (古典制約 Ivan Pavlov)
Behaviour Modification 操作制約,行為修正 Skinner 基本上認為人的學習是被動的受外在環境所影響


Modeling: Garkner 的社會學習(or observational learning 觀察式學習) :learning new things by observing how particular models do them. (socialization社會化)
Three Types of Learning
Adult Learning

Malcolm Knwles

Three Levels of Adult Learning
by Jack Mezirow 1994
To control and manipulate the environment or other people and is often task-orientated problem solving
在組織與機構內常見兩個領域 1. 流程訓練2.調查研究
Starting with the known
readiness to learn
part learning (chunk the task)
spaced learning (allow time between chunks)
active learning (design activities)
over learning (repetition increases retention)
multiple-sense learning (80% sight 10% hearing)
feedback
meaningful material (past and future)
transfer of learning (as authentic as possible)

Principles of learning
隱性知識往往因對談將隱性知識轉為外顯知識由與談者所吸收變為他的隱性知識.溝通式學習對批判性思考的建立十分重要但由於隱性知識的習得難以量化以至於溝通是學習往往受公司(組織)的忽視。

Frames of Reference (參照規準)
傳統價值觀或宗教信仰下所產生的道德常模與生活規準(paradynamic assumptions)
Critical Reflection
Unlearning

藉由批判性反思檢視個人的信念的依據與正當性。涉及知識的重組即舊有信念的修正。
去蕪存菁 : 知識變化快速的年代,自然遺忘的速度已不足以應付知識上修的速度,須運用 方法快速淘汰不合時宜的認知。以免造成知識干擾。 Parenthetic model"差句模式處理":將不合時宜的認知暫純
備用資料庫。
以完整式學習規劃成人學習課程
若組織了解其唯一的競爭力來自員工的學習 將組織內的個體是為完整的學習實體式必須的
Paradynamic Assumption, 典範式觀點(設想)by Brookfield=Mezirow's meaning perspectives
依學習內容、學習者的學習能力、或機構所要達到的目標不同,所適用的學習理論也會不同。behaviourism, cognitive theory and constructivism
knowles ,1990
Modeling can be dynamic learning process for adults 為成人極具動能的學習方式
成人教育工作者的責任
成人教育工作者必須查覺並藉由批判性反思批判自己的觀點,用批判性思考分析他人的許多設想。因為他必須識別出各種參照規準,並運用想像力去將問題重新定位。
成人教育工作者的責任是幫學習者達到它們學習的目的以方便學習者更為自主,對社會現象的察覺能力更為敏銳及成為更有責任性的思考者。
paradigm shift (典範轉移)
報告人:張惠珍
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