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Transcript of Female Leadership
Routes exist, but full of twists and turns
Required: persistence, careful analysis of the puzzle ahead Power, Influence, and Diversity in Organizations TWO SETS OF ASSOCIATIONS COMMUNAL AGENTIC helpful
compassionate treatment of others aggressive
forceful The ability to get what one wants even in the face of resistance Resistance to women's leadership DOUBLE BIND Women have to find the right balance between communal and agentic qualities The ability to get what one wants even in the absence of fear of punishment or promise of reward Have you ever experienced a double bind situation ? Status Status boosts influence SCT (Status Characteristics Theory)
Personal characteristics create rank in status hierarchy
Rank determines performance expectations Leadership styles TRANSFORMATIONAL TRANSACTIONAL Personal Characteristics Specific Diffuse Competences useful in specific situations vs . expectations for competence in general situations
(Education, training e.c.) (Age, gender, race, social class) establish themselves as role models
gain trust and confidence
state future goals & develop plans to achieve these
mentor and empower followers Status is relative to other members of a group give-and-take relationships
conventional manner of managing
clarifying subordinates' responsibilities
reward if objectives are met
correcting if objectives are not met Self reinforcing cycle of status getting consulted more often high status LAISSEZ-FAIRE contributing frequently non-leadership
only concerns itself with rank authority positive feedback So...what is the problem with status? Gender, race and other diffuse characteristics play major roles in status
Women are not seen as legitimate occupants of leadership positions * * 3% of the S&P top 500 CEO's are women Management Interventions 1. Increase awareness of prejudices toward female leaders!
2. Change long-hours norm
3. Reduce subjectivity of performance evaluation
4. Use open recruitment tools
5. Ensure a critical mass of women in executive positions
6. Avoid having a sole female member of any team
7. Help shore up social capital
8. Prepare women for line management
9. Establish family-friendly human resource practices
10. Allow more time for employees with parental responsibility
11. Welcome women back
12. Encourage male participation in family-friendly benefits And how can women turn this around? Education, training
Showing the intention to work in group's interest
Active mutual evaluation of team members Power = Character trait? Summary Power derives from a formal structural position, (relationships between people)
Power is not the ability to connect, but to exclude people from valuable resources Women have to double bind, i.e. balance between communal and agentic
Transformational vs transactional leadership
Demands of family life
Underinvestment in social capital
Management interventions can help to bring women to executive level Effects of Power and influence Influence Power Intended outcome Other outcome Other Outcomes 1. Power, Influence, and Diversity in Organizations
2. Women and the labyrinth of leadership
3. The glass cliff Person exercising power: Subject of power ignores perspective of others
orientation towards action The glass cliff: When and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts Possible explanations for the glass cliff Experiment 1 Experiment 2 stops working efficiently as compensations/ punishments are not in place
resentment Lower status of person exercising power Power compared to Influence Changes behaviour, not attitudes
short term change Changes attitudes, which in turn alters behaviour
proven to be used by efficient leaders
long term change History of Leadership Status-quo bias Stereotypes about gender and leadership Think manager - Think male bias Think crisis - Think female bias Power and Status What does this imply for women and ethnic minorities?
(whose perceived status characteristics are lower) If exercising power leads to resentment, how come power and status are positively correlated? 1) Hidden use of power
2) Restraint use (to use it = lose it)
3) Power leads to resources, which are associated
with competent people
4) Use resources for charity reasons
5) Image control (e.g. exercising power over a minority) In-group, Out-group and prototypes Out-group members (less perceived influence, seen in stereotypical and discriminatory ways) In-group members (higher perceived influence, group membership plays a role in performance expectations) Prototypical group members (members feel that they best represent the group highest status) Status Summary Status is the basis of influence, an effective way to guide subordinates
Using power instead of influence creates resentment and loss of status
Women have lower perceived status characteristics and thus less influence at hand Female Leadership CSR Teams Learning Paradox Social Constructionism Creativity Employee retention Feedback and reflection diversity 6 Leadership styles Agentic trait glass ceiling leadership "energy,engagement,exploration" and communal management Communal & Let's connect! male history of leadership
female history of leadership success
crisis male leader glass cliff only emerges in a male history of leadership condition! female leader male/female leader male/female leader ZIP-IN What can women and corporations do to reduce the difference in
performance-perception and career opportunities between male and female workers? (Position in a group based on respect and appreciation) Should women follow a strict dress-code in order to gain status?
Do you have personal experience? Do you have any (personal) examples?
5. Let's connect
7. Feedback Zip-Out Case Kangaroo Consulting Case 1) Female-Quota in top-management
3) compensation schemes Agenda: 4. Break Have a break! Have a KitKat! * Less motivated and initiative-taking workforce Differential endorsement of gender stereotypes depending on company performance WHY? WHEN? Time of success Time of crisis stereotypically male attributes most important for selection of a leader stereotypically female attributes most important for selection of a leader Women get appointed in time of crisis those firms are more likely to fail women less likely to get appointed for new leadership positions