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Margaret Newman, RN, PHD, FAAN

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Tara Scheck

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Margaret Newman, RN, PHD, FAAN

Background Information
Overview of HEC
Key points from case study
: The nurse asked questions about things going on the patient's personal life, rather than just focusing on the physical symptoms. The nurse got the full picture of the patient's environment and then could help the patient understand the overall pattern of her life and how changing her environment could change the pattern.
: By expanding the patient's consciousness and encouraging her to change the environment she is currently in, the patient's overall health should improve because she is not putting herself in negative environments.
: The nurse asked questions so she could also understand the patient's pattern and could connect with the patient and help her expand her consciousness. She was also using a whole-person approach rather than just focusing on only the symptoms.
: The nurse realized that the patient is the center of her own consciousness and, by asking about her health as a whole, the nurse was able to understand and connect with the patient as a person.

What does this all mean?
The purpose of the theory is not to "fix a problem" or to "intervene in an issue", but is an opportunity to assist clients in recognizing patterns so they may expand their consciousness.
Case Study
A young female comes into the clinic complaining of a two-day migraine with accompanying symptoms of nausea, vomiting and pain; however, she had no symptoms at the time of the visit. The migraines started 18 months prior and became severe about 6 months ago. The nurse assessed vital signs which came back normal, so she decided to focus on relationships since the client was not in distress. After explaining to the nurse that her migraines and sickness were creating emotional distress and pain within outside relationships and school/daily activities, the nurse gave an oral description of the pattern observed overall in the family. The nurse gave the patient pain and nausea medication and ordered a CAT scan to look at her brain. The nurse offered additional treatment to the patient such as hormone replacement therapy and education about what migraines are and how they can be triggered.
Margaret Newman, RN, PHD, FAAN
By: Lindsey Bryce
Naomi Cherian
Megan Heathcoat
Nikki Hendriks
Tara Scheck
Ali Demuth

Bachelor's Degree in Home Economics: Baylor University, 1954
Bachelor's Degree in Nursing: University of Tennessee, 1962
Master's Degree: University of California, 1964
Ph.D.: New York University, 1971
Work Experience
Director of nursing of a clinical research center at the University of Tennessee
1971-1977: Taught at New York University
1977: Professor-in-charge of graduate study at Penn State
1984: Nurse Theorist at the University of Minnesota
Major Influence
Her Mother:

Newman's mother was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, a degenerative disease affecting the body's voluntary muscle movement.

Newman informed others that even though her mother was physically ill her mother viewed herself as a whole person like all other people.
Realization from Mother's ALS diagnosis
1. A disease does not deem a person as unhealthy

2. Time, movement and space are somehow interrelated with the term of health.

3. Her mother's life was confined in terms of space but it was not defined by the disease
Influences to Newman's Theory
Martha Rogers: Theory of Unitary Human Beings
Health and illness are not two separate ideas
Rogers emphasized the need for nursing to encompass beings in space as well as on Earth
Rogers' assumptions regarding patterning of persons in interaction with the environment are basic to the view that consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person-environment interaction
Consciousness vs. Expanding Consciousness
: Consciousness is the informational capacity of the whole (person) and is revealed in the evolving pattern of the whole. Expanding Consciousness is reaching a new realization of yourself and pattern.
Theory Concept Definitions
Pattern Recognition
: A task in intervention by becoming aware of the pattern of the other person by becoming in touch with their own pattern in order to grow together.
Total-Person Approach
: Newman's idea that nursing must be a holistic approach to understanding the patterns before the disease appears. Two separate patterns will eventually meet and a new pattern will develop. This new pattern contains information as a whole of both individual patterns.
: Evolving pattern of consciousness

Clinical Application
: Sickness and wellness make up health as a whole, which is consciousness. The patterns of consciousness within a person can become disorganized and the manifestation of this disarray in the whole represents sickness.

A nurse must be aware of the fact that the patient can be healthy even in the presence of a disease, as well unhealthy in the apparent absence of disease, and understand that sickness and wellness are not two separate ideas.
: A nurse's job is to help people achieve higher levels of consciousness for themselves.
“The theory of health as expanding consciousness (HEC) was stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible. The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons, regardless of the presence or absence of disease. The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness – a process of becoming more of oneself, of finding greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions of connectedness with other people and the world."
: A universe of open systems with which humans are constantly interacting.
Clinical Application
: Nursing care is directed towards reducing stress factors and adverse conditions that increase the risk for or actually affect optimal patient interaction within the environment.

: A patient in the ER came in and the nurse asked questions about her home life. The patient explained how she is a single parent with 5 children and begins to cry. She explains that she is trying to take care of her children while coping with her own illness. The nurse realizes that if she would have gone into the patient's room and only done the physical nursing tasks required of her then she would have incorporated only the physical aspect of health, rather than taking the environmental factors into consideration, as well. The nurse would not have known how environmental factors play a major role in a patients health.
: The specific person does not possess consciousness. Instead, the person is consciousness. People are centers of consciousness with an overall pattern of expanding consciousness.
Clinical Application
: Nurses often relate to people facing uncertainty, debilitation, loss and eventual death associated with chronic illness. The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of the presence or absence of disease.
Clinical Application
: Nursing care is directed toward reducing stress factors and adverse conditions that increase the risk for or actually affect optimal patient functions. They connect their own patterns to the patterns of the patient and create a new pattern to find a new path of connectedness.

"When nurses engage with people in dialogue focused on meaning, they hold no judgment of good or bad, right or wrong. Nurses regard whatever arises in the evolving pattern in the lives of individuals, families, and communities with a nonjudgmental, authentic presence. The relational process reveals an opening for transformation."
Central Theme
Nursing practices are purposeful, using a total-person approach to patient care to help individuals, families, and groups attain and maintain wellness.
Connectedness Between Patient and Care Provider
: Nursing is seen as a partnership between the nurse and client, in which both grow in the sense of levels of higher consciousness.
Types of environments?
Amundsen, A. (2004). Health as expanding consciousness guide to interative primary care practice for family nurse
practitioners. Retrieved from: https://www.nursing.arizona.edu

Brown, J.W. (2011). Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research. Nursing
Science Quarterly, 24(3), 197-201.

De La Rosa, A. (2013, July 19). Margaret Newman [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube.com

Marchione J. (1993). Margaret newman: health as expanding consciousness. Retrieved from http://

Margaret A. Newman: Nurse Theorist. (2006). Retrieved July 18, 2014, from https://library.uthsc.edu

Newman, M. (1994). Health as Expanding Consciousness. Mississauga, Canada.

Newman, M. (2014). Health as expanding consciousness. Retrieved from http://healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/

Parker, M.E. (2005). Part one: Martha e. rogers’ science of unitary human beings. Nursing theories and nursing practice.
Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com

Pharris, M.D. (2010). Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness. In M. Parker & M. Smith (Eds.),
Nursing theories and nursing practice (3 ed., pp. 290-310), Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

Phillips, J.R. (2010). The universitality of rogers’ science of unitary human beings. Nursing Science Quarterly, 23(1),

Smith, M.C. (2011). Integrative review of research related to Margaret newman’s theory of health as expanding
consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24(3), 256-275.

Taylor, C., Lillis, C., LeMone, P., Lynn, P. (2011). Theory, research, and evidence based practice. Fundamentals of
Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. 68-81
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