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Chinese cultural revolution
Transcript of Chinese cultural revolution
#123 Targets/Goals The revolution's beginning The goal of the culture revolution was the creation of a communist country, where everyone was equal. It also meant to reaffirm Mao's idealism, to make education, health care, and culture less important, to give the youth a revolutionary experience, and the creation of a new culture. Why was Mao so trusted? If you are a youth during that time... The Chinese Cultural Revolution can be considered a genocide, but is different from a standard one. This is a story about a group of soldiers in Tibet during the Cultural revolution.
#99 China on the World Map China is located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, China is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada. With an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers, its shape on the map is like a rooster. China's Prosperity Mao was, and still is considered a hero of china. For leading the people to victory in World War II and the Civil war that followed. Up to today, people of China think of Mao Zedong as a great leader for all of the good thing he has done. The development of the worship of Mao. In the beginning, Mao wanted to prevent the personal worship of the party. But despite his efforts, these worships still grew. There is 3 reasons for the development of this worship: Mao was seen as a hero, for liberating the people. This feeling is developed by the long-term monarchy system in china, where the emperors are respected, praised, and seen as saviors. This thinking cannot be changed quickly. The political social movement took place between 1966-1976 and devastated millions. During the congress in Chengdu, Mao said that "There are two kinds of personality cults. One is a healthy personality cult, that is, to worship men like Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. Because they hold the truth in their hands. The other is a false personality cult, i.e. not analyzed and blind worship." Even though this has truth in it, but it confused the worship of truth with the worship of a person. When http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/cultural-revolution/
http://ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20111007163626AAHicER After World War II and the Civil War that followed, China finally became it's own country. The president, Mao Zedong, wanted to increase China's production and wealth, in order to create a strong country. The most successful county at that time was the Soviet Union. (The main part of it became Russia) The reason being that WW2 was not fought on it's land, and it's prosperity during the Great depression. The Soviet Union was a socialist country, meaning all the wealth acquired would be to benefit the government. Unlike the Unite States, where the wealth would benefit only individuals. Because of this, Soviet Union was especially strong in comparison with other countries. China was friend with Soviet Union, therefore Mao developed China into a socialist country. But in 1961 the relationship between the two countries broke, and the Soviet Union officially removed all the help it has given to China. Since the western countries are capitalist, China refused any assist from them, and develop the idea of "surpass the British, catch up to the U.S." Where believing that China will become a powerful country by itself. There are 2 Main Targets The Four Olds: Referring to the old way of life of China. Mao and his followers believed that the old way would be a obstacle in achieving their goal of communism. The land lords having absolute power over the peasants, controlling their life, taking everything that they owned. The peasants had np choice but to follow every order given, or they will lose everything. This goes against the idea of equality of the communist, and is believed that this prevented China from developing into a powerful country. Education During the revolution, China valued production of goods and accumulating wealth. But that wealth is physical wealth such as grain and cloth, so farmers and workers are considered important. On the other hand, educated people such as teachers and professors are seen as less needed, and even hated by others for their inability to turn their knowledge into actual results. So no students went to school, and the government forced the teachers into poor villages to work. Thus Mao created the "Great Leap Forward", to increase China's goods production. But the plan failed and with the great 3 years famine that followed in 1958, China's agriculture production was low. Mao was blamed for this failure and was pressured to resign from the head of state. Mao was concerned about his standing in the party, and feared that China will seize from being a pure socialist country. So he launched the cultural revolution in hope of revitalizing the beliefs of younger party members. Old Culture Old habits Old Ideas Old Custom When the teachers had arrived in a farming village, they saw a wide field of short green plants. They said to the local farmer, "Your chives seems to be growing well!" The farmer looked at the teachers with confusion, "Chives? This is a field of wheat seedlings!" Why? A few people wanted to use this worship of Mao for their personal benefits. They praised the thinking of Mao and tried to gain power by promoting it. Who? When Mao was in power and introduced his revolutionary idea to China, his call was answered mainly by the youth of China. Some even as young as elementary children. Majority were the young adults. They formed the first Red Guards. They were soon joined by workers and soldiers.The red guards, following the beliefs of Mao, attacked anyone who opposed Mao. The person that started the Chinese cultural revolution is Mao Zedong. The president of China at that time. Gang of four, a group of political leader mainly consist of Mao's former wife Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. They appeared in the later stages of the revolution, and is blamed for the massive amount of destruction during the revolution, put on trial in 1981. Where? The revolution started in Beijing and later on affected the whole of China. People from big cities moved to villages in less remote areas to help with production. What? During the 10 years of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, China was in a state of chaos and confusion. Teachers, former landlord, intellectuals, and people that have any connection to capitalism was humiliated, beaten, and even murdered. There was no trust, family and friends turning against each other, spreading propaganda about each other, saying things like someone have a landlord grandparent, his brother is a capitalist, etc. Because education is not valued, students rioted against schools and universities, resulting in most of them being closed down or destroyed. Some of the teachers and professors where sent to the villages to work as mere farmers. Many died due to the harsh conditions and the humiliation. The few that survived only from having a good background. The Red Guards, inspired by Mao, attacked anyone who is seen as an enemy to Mao. They raided people's houses, smashing everything and beating the owner. They were supported by the government, and they traveled around China to spread their cause. Train was free to the Red Guards and food and lodging awaits them. Some enjoyed this chaos, saying that they feel they can do what every they want, that they are in control. The Communist Party encouraged the Red Guards in destroying the Four Olds. They destroyed ancient buildings, smashed antiques, burned priceless old books and paintings, humiliated professors, doctors, and even attacked people on the street for having hair too long or wearing colorful clothing. Many senior leader within the Party was also targeted and killed, main reason being the suspicion of posing a threat to Mao, or being a capitalist. In 1968, Mao saw that the Red Guards are causing too much chaos, so he decided to find ways to get the country back on tracks. The Army was also involved in the revolution. From ordered to help with the revolution to having to reestablish authority and order. Later Stages Situation 1:
You are from a "righteous" family. Your father is a solider in the war, your mother is a strong socialist, and you have no connection with landlords or people outside of China in your family history. Congratulations! You joined the army! During the revolution, it is every young people's honor to be able to serve in the military. Only those that do not have any background that oppose the ideas of Mao or have high officials in their family will get the honor of serving under Mao Zedong and contributing directly to the country.
You are the son/daughter of a factory worker. Your mother/father is close to retirement age, and the factory will need a new worker. The second best option aside from joining the army. Very few youth gets the chance to remain in the city and become a factory worker. Because the conditions are very precise, and education was not seen as important, little of the population of youth will fit into this category. (you still need some education for factory work) And if you have a brother or sister, you are going to have to compete for the spot, since only one of you can go.
You do not fit into any of the categories above. You have a great-great granddad who is a small land lord. Or a distant cousin who is in Taiwan. I am sorry, you are one of the estimated 16 million youth that were send to the countryside. Because of your background or the lack of, you have being told to "learn from the poor of this country and get back to your roots." So you have been sent by train to a far away village in the middle of nowhere to help the local residents. Most of the youth fall under this category. Number of them died because of the lack of medicine, food, housing, and the harsh weather. Very few of them was able to make it back into the city after the revolution was over. The Cultural Revolution was considered over when the Gang of Four was put on trail for causing the destruction during the revolution. Even though some of the things may not be their direct work, but all of the blame was put on them for the Cultural Revolution. There were still some good of sending the youth to the countryside villages. They brought knowledge and intellect to the otherwise uneducated farmers/hunters, and they help increase production rates in those villages. There is no exact number of how many people died during the Cultural Revolution. But there is an estimation that 36 million people were persecuted, and 750,000 to 1.5 million people were killed. Hu Yaobang, a former Communist Party chief, said 1 million people died, but apparently he didn't include the casualties from fighting within the Red Guards, which scholars believe add another 1 million death. Even though during the revolution the Red Guards killed many people by beating them to death. A significant amount of citizens such as professors and doctors died from harsh living conditions when they where send to work in farming fields or live stock management. Many also died from suicide for unable to take the pressure from all the humiliation or forced to by the mobs. The most damaging result from the Cultural Revolution isn't the massive number of death, but the lose of knowledge and culture resulting from destroying the four olds and the lack of education at that time. Because the revolution aimed in creating a new culture, many priceless artifacts were destroyed. Homes where raided, and anything that is suspect of being pieces from the old culture was smashed or burnt. This was a huge negative impact on the history and culture of China. Religion was also targeted. Buddhist temples were destroyed, manuscripts and religious figures were burned. Monks were captured and imprisoned, some were killed or put to harsh labor. The values during the revolution is twisted compare to the values today. Education was thought as useless, there was even a saying that "the more you learn the stupider you become." Thus resulting in the creation of "zero hero", where a student handed in blank test and got accepted by the university and considered a hero. The platoon of soldiers consist of about 120 people, most of them are new recruits. They are stationed in Tibet, a province at the corner of China. They are there to help liberate the locals from the old culture and bring technology and science to the corner of China that has not been touched for decades. The harsh cold weather and the dominance of wilderness has been a major obstacle for this group of dedicated young man, even though some of them may only be 17 or 18, the fire of revolution burn bright in their hearts. One day, the commander received an order to move his platoon to the other side of the mountain ridge they set up camp at. So he rallied up his troops, found a local guild, and set for the destination just at night fall. The weather is horrible, wind picking up snow blasted at the soldiers, even with their thick cotton coats, the progress was slow. Slowly, the soldiers start to see shadows and flicks of movement behind their trail, and as time goes on, more and more sighs of being followed can be seen. Wolfs, the wilderness of Tibet is full of them, known of their viciousness and smartness. The guild hurried to the commander, and stopped the troops from moving forward. "How much ammo does your soldiers have?" ask the guild. "These are new recruit, they never fired a gun in their life, they have no ammo." "This is bad! By this rate, all the wolfs around these parts will gather, and they will attack! We need to reroute and cross the river, this way the wolfs will not follow us because they will be trans passing in another pack's territory." "Non sense! If we cross the river, our cloth will get wet, and we will never survive in this weather! Besides, we are the soldiers of the revolution, we cannot be afraid of hardship or death! We will not reroute!" And so the platoon continued on despite of the warning. The wolfs of Tibet are very intelligent, they first blocked the main road, directing the soldiers into a valley, then they split into 4 packs, one blocked the troops front, another the back. One split the soldiers into 2 unequal factions, while the last attacked the smaller faction. That night, 67 soldiers were killed, out of the 67, only 2 bodies was recognizable. If it wasn't for the soldier's "not afraid of hardship or death" spirit, maybe those 67 young man will still be alive, maybe they will still have a future. GDP:
#2 Literacy Rates:
Female:87.6% About 740,000 people infected with HIV.
26,000 dies from AIDS. (2009) China's government:
Communism. China is no longer pure socialism, but is also not fully capitalism, it's slowly changing into a democratic federal republic. China's main industries:
Manufacturing, China is the largest producer of inexpensive cotton textile. Process and manufacture of chemicals such as fertilizer, petroleum, etc. China has a low crime rate in comparison to countries such as the U.S. resulting from the death penalty and ban on firearm. The crime rate towards foreigner are very low, but local crime rate isn't. There are many case of pickpocket or thief. And personal/domestic violence is pretty common.