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The American Revolutionaries
Transcript of The American Revolutionaries
John and Abigail Adams
The defining moment in Thomas Jefferson's life-
The Declaration of Independence
How Thomas Jefferson helped the American revolution
The committee assigned to drafting a Declaration of Independence
Inspiration to write the declaration.
Fun facts about Thomas Jefferson
-He was a gifted violin player.
- He really liked books and sold over 10,000 of his own books to the library in congress.
-He was a terrible public speaker because even though his words where always well written and meaningful he mumbled when he spoke and talked quietly.
-He liked nice wines probably from his time spent in France.
The declaration used a lot of John Lockes ideas and Jefferson thought Locke was one of the most important thinkers of liberty.
The most important things Jefferson did while he was president
And the most important fact of all
Thomas Jefferson was a ginger.
The Power Couple
In 1776 the Continetal Congress selected Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Rodger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston to draft a declaration of independance.
The committee then assigned Jefferson to produce a draft document for them to consider.
He also used documents such as the Virginia declaration of rights, state and local calls for independence, and his own draft of the Virginia constitution.
How he helped to expand America
Although Jefferson did not fight as a solider he fought for liberty with his powerful words, mostly with the Declaration of Independence. He also wrote a powerful pamphlet called
A Summary View of the Rights of British America
which mostly talked about natural rights.
He traveled to Paris, France with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to negotiate for them to help finance an army to fight against the British. A year after arriving in Paris he became the only remaining United States minister to France.
Jefferson had a great desire to expand the United States territory
He knew the Mississippi river was a key part of farmers economic well being.
In 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte sold him the Louisiana Territory for fifteen million dollars, needing money to fund a new war with England. This included most of the land from the Mississippi river to the Rocky Mountains.
This act doubled the size of the nation.
The Lewis and Clark expedition.
After Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory he sent a twenty five man expedition to explore the new land.
This was led by his secretary Meriwether Lewis and a army captain William Clark. It took them two and a half years to cover 8,000 miles.
It is considered one of the greatest exploration in history.
- He was a very causal person and people often thought he dressed below his position. He also started the presidential position of shaking hands instead of bowing because he thought it was too formal.
In 1776 the American colonies had broken away from British rule. Because of this the Continental Army was formed on June 14th 1776 to protect its people.
A few weeks later George Washington was
appointed head of the army by John Adams
of the Second Continental Congress in
Washington already had made a name for himself in the colonies: he trained local Virginian militias prior to the separation of the colonies. His large involvement made him a popular choice to lead America's defense force.
Shortly after Washington took his position he gained control of just 14,500 men. Most of which were untrained and unphysical fit for battle.
At the time Washington only had 2.5 million pounds of gunpowder. Even though this sounds like a large amount it was quite small.
Washington than ordered raids on surrounding British arsenals. By doing this he cut off all supplies for England. Leaving the British no way to replenish their arsenal.
Often described as the most dangerous man in Massachusetts, Samuel Adams began his political career at the age of eighteen when he graduated from Harvard. His father was a merchant and a brewer, and after failing at both occupations, Samuel pursued his political dreams by spending time in public areas and agitating the people for resistance to the British.
Samuel's first real job was as a tax-collector until he was elected a member of the Massachusetts Assembly in 1765, thus launching him down the path of becoming one of our most remembered Founding Fathers.
The Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16th, 1773. Led by Samuel Adams, a group of patriots silently climbed aboard three ships and dumped three hundred and forty-two boxes of tea into the harbor due to their anger over the Tea Act, which had been passed in early May of that year.
He then moved all American artillery onto Dorchester Heights, a town which overlooked the city. This allowed the British to enter the city, but because they had no arsenals they were trapped and forced to flea Boston.
After the victory Washington transported all troops into New York. However when they arrived they were put under siege by Britsh General William Howie.
The Americans lost to England in the battle of Long Island in August of 1776. After more loses to the British Washington was forced to flee to New Jersey.
On the night of Christmas Eve
Washington lead a counter attack
in Trenton, New Jersey. Capturing 1000 Hessian troops ( British troops of German decent). After this Washington lead more battles and eventually forced England to retreat back to New York.
Not So Fun Fact
From 1`775 through 1776 the American Government had only put yearly contracts in place for the army composed of militia men. In 1777 the government decided to make longer contracts for its service men.
Shortly after General Howie had fled back to New York he than raided Philidelphia (the capitol at the time). By winning over the Continental army at the battle of Brandywine. Washington took a especially hard loss at this battle, losing roughly 1, 200 men.
Through this time England was spread out fighting small skirmishes over a large part of land. Washington took advantage of this situation and lead a force into Germantown. Even though Washington was defeated after this battle the British forces had lost so many men and supplies. To ad to the situation one of the British generals, John Burgoyne had fled to New York and was captured at Saratoga and forced to relinquish his entire army.
After the loses of multiple battles this became big news around the world.. Spain, France and the Netherlands joined forces with the Americans.
Through the winter of 1777-1778 with only eleven thousand men remaining Washinton camped at Valley Forge for a total of 6 months. This winter tested the strength of all of his men. With a shortage of food and medical supplies. He ordered a training program lead by former Prussian General Staff member Baron Von Steuben. To regain strength and combat skills. Even though the army lost near 2,500 men during the time they emerged stronger and more advanced in combat skills.
A large part of why the Americans lost so many people during the war was contributed to the fact that local farmers sold their goods to the British for gold. Over the Continental currency which was near worthless at the time. The farmers would charge 1000 times to the army for what they would sell at market.
Congress authorized the army to have to right to take what they needed but the citizens did not listen to them.
John and Abigail exchanged over 1,100 letters, beginning during their courtship in 1762 and continuing throughout Johns political career (until about 1801). These detailed and informative letters include Johns descriptions of the Continental Congress and his impressions of Europe while he served in various diplomatic roles.
Abigail's updates were about their family, farm and news of the Revolutions impact on the Boston area.
The earliest letters exchanged between John and Abigail occurred during their courtship, including a series of sixteen letters sent between the 12th of April and May 9th 1762 while John was in Boston being inoculated against smallpox.
During the early 1770s, John wrote to Abigail when his legal work for the circuit court took him away from home. John and Abigail exchanged numerous letters while John served in the Continental Congress from about 1774 to 1777.
John Adams first diplomatic assignment in Europe in early 1778 prompted a series of letters between him and his wife until he returned to the United States. Sending mail over the ocean was rather challenging but this did not stop the president and his wife from communicating with each other.
The End Of The War
With supplies dwindling and unable to conquer new lands the British were forced to leave Philadelphia and return back to New York. Attempting to get back before a French fleat arrived at New York. During their retreat back the Americans attacked the British several times, such as the battle of Monmouth. Eventually the British reached New York before the French but along the way they made the mistake of pulling out of all the southern states leaving them trapped.
At the same time France declared war against England in India. With the joint efforts of the French army, navy and the American Continental army they defeated the British at the battle of Yorktown, Virginia. On October 19th 1781.
After this the war was effectively over and on September 3rd, 1883 The Treaty Of Paris was signed, recognizing that the American colonies were a separate country from country.
Some of their letters
"As to your extraordinary code of laws, I cannot but laugh.
"We have been told that our struggle has loosened the bonds of government everywhere; that children and apprentices were disobedient; that schools and colleges were grown turbulent; that Indians slighted their guardians, and negroes grew insolent to their masters.
"But your letter was the first intimation that another tribe, more numerous and powerful than all the rest, were grown discontented.
"This is rather too coarse a compliment, but you are so saucy, I won't blot it out.
"Depend upon it, we know better than to repeal our masculine systems. Although they are in full force, you know they are little more than theory. We dare not exert our power in its full latitude. We are obliged to go fair and softly, and, in practice, you know we are the subjects.
"We have only the name of masters, and rather than give up this, which would completely subject us to the despotism of the petticoat, I hope General Washington and all our brave heroes would fight. -John Adams, April 14th 1776
The First President
On December 23rd, 1783. Washington announced that he would retire from the military and return to public life. But after saying this he was elected to lead America for his contributions to the American cause.
He didn't like presenting the State of the Union address in person so he started the tradition of presenting it only in writing.
"I cannot say that I think you are very generous to the ladies; for, whilst you are proclaiming peace and good-will to men, emancipating all nations, you insist upon retaining an absolute power over wives.
"But you must remember that arbitrary power is like most other things which are very hard, very liable to be broken; and, notwithstanding all your wise laws and maxims, we have it in our power, not only to free ourselves, but to subdue our masters, and without violence, throw both your natural and legal authority at our feet." Abigail Adams, May 7th 1776
-Born in Massachusetts in 1735
-Served as Vice president to George Washington
-Was the second president of the US
- He was on the committee with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman to draft the Declaration of independence
-Married to Abigail Adams
-President for 4 years
Who was John Adams?
What America was like when John was president
American was just starting out when John Adams became president. America was struggling to govern itself when George Washington was elected president. George Washington along with John Adams began to pull the nation together into what it is today.
What he did for the Revolutionary War
Adams was one of the major inspirations for the movement towards independence. He helped create the U.S. Navy and Marines. Adams was a member of the Continental Congress and later as a diplomat helped negotiate peace with Britain. He also was the author of the Declaration of Independence
If it's about organizing and galvanizing people politically for either the struggle for independence or for the establishing of our form or government, the key man was John Adams. He was the leader for the cause of independence in the Second Continental Congress, rallying reluctant delegates to the cause. Thomas Jefferson called Adams "the Colossus of Independence".
Adams also served in several other capacities. In the early days he was virtually the Secretary of War. Even before independence was declared, Adams convinced the various colonies/states to write constitutions (he wrote the first one for Massachusetts). This, as well as Adams' later writings, played a key role in the shaping of our constitutional forms. And so, Adams was not only key to the struggle to free the Americans from British rule, but the at least equally important.He made an effort to establish their own viable form of government.
Basic info on the First Lady
- Abigail was born in Massachusetts in 1744
- She was the wife of John Adams the second president of the US and the mother of John Q. Adams, the sixth president of the US.
-Mother to five children
- Supported womens rights
-Was strongly against slavery
When there was seperation with John and Abigail, Abigail struggled with wartime, shortages, lack of income, and difficult living conditions. She would write letters to John describing her life during revolutionary times. Her letters would also describe her lonliness without her best friend.
Why she was important
Abigail is recognized as the first American woman honored as the wife of one US president and the mother of another US president. She was intelligent and broadminded, she opposed slavery and she believed in equal education for boys and girl. Even though Abigail was fortunate, she was raised to help those who were less fortunate. She helped womens rights grow more. Abigail was committed to help women get educated and have equal rights to men.
Abigail always lived by her own words about helping those in need. During the war, fallen soldiers would come to her in need of help and first aid. She would kindly take them into her home and care for them. When the soldiers became short on ammunition and bullets, Abigail was there to make them more out of her own silverware and dishes. She and her family brought a great impact upon the Revolutionary War.
TAKE THAT MEN
Paul Revere (1735-1818) was a silversmith in Boston but even though his business did well; Revere took notice of the situation around him. As others struggled, he sensed that his own livelihood could soon be affected unless issues with the British were soon addressed. He was also a colonial activist in Boston who played a key role in mobilizing the colonial activism that led to the Revolution. As tensions between the colonies and the British deepened, Revere was tapped to spy on British soldiers and report on their movement. Revere was a veteran of the French and Indian War and led anti-British agitation after the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765.
He was an early member of the Sons of Liberty and in a brazen act of defiance, he and others dressed as Indians and dumped tea into Boston Harbor, launching what came to be known as the Boston Tea Party.
Then, in April 1775, Revere won his role in history and legend by making his midnight ride to Lexington and Concord to warn the Patriots of the British advance from Boston. During his famous midnight ride on the night of April 18th 1775, Revere was captured by the British in Lexington before he could reach Concord.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow later immortalized Revere by focusing on him—instead of fellow riders William Dawes and Samuel Prescott—in his popular poem depicting the event
In 1770, Produced just three weeks after the Boston Massacre, Paul Revere’s historic engraving, “The Bloody Massacre in King-Street,” was probably the most effective piece of war propaganda in American history. It shows an orderly line of British soldiers firing into an American crowd, which is not exactly what happened.
During the war, Revere played many different roles. He manufactured gunpowder and cannons for the Continental Army, printed the country's first money, and commanded Castle William at Boston Harbor. Revere went on to design the first seal for the United Colonies and the first Continental bonds. His military career during the Revolution was not nearly as distinguished, he was arrested and acquitted for disobeying orders multiple times, and he went back to a profitable career in silversmithing at the end of the war.
The Female Paul Revere
Sibbell? Sebal? Sebil? Sibel? Cybil?
Who was Sybil Ludington?
She was a 16 year old girl living in what is now the Ludingtonville section of Kent, New York.
She was the oldest of 12 children, so she helped care for them, but didn't really like all the cooking and cleaning that women were supposed to do.
She was a tomboy, and much prefered riding horses. She recieved her horse Star, who she rode on her midnight ride, for her 15th birthday.
Her father was Colonel Henry Ludington, who later became an aide to George Washington.
April 26, 1777
A British force of 2000 men (that is a lot of men) arrived in Danbury.
Thomas Jefferson and slavery.
Jefferson was very critical of chages being made to the declaration by the committe becouse he was so proud of it.
In 1803 he expanded the United States by making the Louisiana purchase. He also sent Lewis and Clark on a exploring expedition.
Even thought Jefferson always spoke about how everyone should be free he was a slave owner. He wrote in the Declaration of Independance that "all men should be created equal" and some people in Britain questioned him on how he could say that and still own slaves.
He was in debt most of his life and needed the slaves to help him pay back what he owned.
He wrote in the declaration that all men should have "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" but he denied his slaves those rights.
He tried to keep America netural when France and Britain where at war. Unfortunatly all of his efforts did not work becouse congress declared war in 1812.
x A Lot
Hit the road jack, and don't ya come back,
The Fight for Independence
After helping to organize resistance to the Stamp Act and founding Boston's committee of correspondence, Samuel Adams, along with Patrick Henry, were two of the first men to argue for independence in 1776 and pushed very hard to get the Declaration of Independence signed. At this time, Samuel was a delegate to the First Continental Congress. Many years later, he was elected governor of Massachusetts. Sadly, he had to resign from this after three years due to his poor health. He died on October 2nd, 1803. His cousin John Adams described him as, "born and tempered, a wedge of steel to split the knot of wood that tied America to Britain." In his day, Samuel Adams was thought of as "the most dangerous man in Massachusetts", and he firmly believed that, "We cannot make events. Our business is wisely to improve them."