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The Rational Planning Model

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Rheimon Laquian

on 16 November 2014

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Transcript of The Rational Planning Model

i. The Rational Planning Model
What is Rational Planning?
Rational Planning Includes Comprehensive, long-range view and a systematic, analytical approach in a planning process.
Rational Planning Model
Economics, political science, and other disciplines greatly enriched the planning education and research.
Edward Banfield was the first to define a model or rational planning (Banfield 1955); his write - up is still cited frequently.
1. Ends Reduction and elaboration
2. Designs Courses of action
3. Comparative evaluation of consequences
4. Choice among alternatives
5. Implementation of the chosen alternative
Many othershave written their own versions of the rational model (Stuart 1969; Lichfiield 1975). Barclay Hudson called it sypnotic planning; and this term is sometimes used (Hudson, 1979)
The model gave the birth to the Rational Planning Model
The most widely applied model in planning practice so far, Due to its simplicity and apparent logic
Viewed as applicable in all public domains everywhere around the world.
Flowchart explaining the Rational Planning Model
Rational Planning: Definition
The rational planning model is the process of realizing a problem, establishing and evaluating planning criteria, crating alternatives, implementing alternatives, and monitoring progress of the alternatives.
Used in designing neighborhoods, cities, and regions. The rational planning model is central in the development of modern urban planning and transformation planning.

Advantages and Disadvantages

1. It is a group-based decision making process. If the problem is not identified properly then we may face a problem as each and every member of the group might have a different definition of the problem.
2. Whole assessment should be correct otherwise one can get wrong solution.
3. Planner defines the problem not goal.
4. Time consuming process
Advantages and Disadvantages

1. Generate all possible solutions.
2. Generate objective assessment criteria
3. Assumes accurate, stable and complete knowledge of all the alternatives, preferences, goals and consequences.
4. Assumes a rational, reasonable, non-political world.
Planning Types and Models
Case Study
Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS)
Chicago Area Transportation Study during the late 1950s and early 1960s illustrates execution of the rational planning model.
The model is outlined in 10 steps.
The study shows that the rational model is workable but raises questions about whether it is effective in influencing decisions.
1. Data Collection:
survey conducted in three areas; travel, land-use, and the transportation system.
2. Analysis of data:
The planner tries to make sense out of the bare facts and understand what is happening and why. The object is to interpret and explain the data, to find cause-effect relationships.
3. Forecasting the future context:
Came up with a population forecast, which was based on published forecasts, which was based on published forecasts for the United States and Illinois (Chicago Area Transportation Study 1960, 6-8). Then came a forecast of economic activity, for which a 50-sector input-output model of the local economy was formulated (Hoch 1959)
4. Establishing goals
1. The planner selects the goals, based on professional experience and personal judgement (elitist).

2. Someone gives the goals to the planner (the legislative body, policy-making board, or some other client)

3. The planner tries to find out shared goals through public opinion surveys or citizen participation programs.
4. Establishing goals (Continuation)
The last approach is currently quite popular. CATS used the combination of 1 and 2.

Dr. Carroll and Creighton drafted and discussed possible goal statements with advisory committees and the Policy Committee.

These were the stated Goals: 1. Greater Speed; 2. Increased Safety; 3. Lower Operating Costs; 4. Economy in new construction; 5. Minimizing disruption; 6. Promoting better land development.
5. Design of Alternatives
The planner devises alternative ways of achieving the goals. This step requires the most creativity.

1. In physical planning, this step involves design in the sense that architects and engineers use the word.

2. In nonphysical areas, alternatives may be different programs, laws and regulations, or institutional arrangements.

CATS staff did involve physical design: drawing networks of highway and transit routes. List of design principles was developed to guide the planners.
6. Testing of alternatives:
This is a forecast of how each alternative would perform in the future context.
i. CATS put great emphasis on developing the methodology known as "travel demand forecasting"
7. Evaluation of alternatives:
This means a comparison of how well the alternatives achieve the goals.
Alternatives are made in which comparison between the plans is made eg. Whether Plan A is better than Plan B etc.
8. Selection of one alternative:
The transit plan recommended construction of one new rail line and extension of three existing lines, coordination of service between the subway-elevated system and the private railroads, installation of moving wide walks in the Loop, construction of parking garages at outer terminals of rail transit lines, experimenting with express bus service on two expressways
9. Implementation:
Financing and programming the plan;

It was intended to show that the highways could be built without raising taxes.

Projected revenues from existing sources (fuel taxes, registrations, and federal aid) would be sufficient to fund completion of the plan by 1980. But CATS had no operating responsibility or implementing power. That was up to the sponsoring agencies: The City, County, State, and Federal Governments.
10. Monitoring:
The planner should periodically review the plan to see whether it works, and if not, to suggest changes. Sometimes this step is called "feedback".

In 1970 CATS repeated the major travel surveys to update its data base.

Because the political tide turned against highways, very little of Plan L-3 was realized.
10. Monitoring: (Continuation)
The top priority was the Crosstown Expressway, a north-south route in the Cicero Avenue corridor. This became highly controversial and was the subject of much political debate and many further studies (Pikarsky 1967). Despite extensive efforts to mitigate the impacts and make it acceptable to the neighborhoods, it was never built.
End of Topic
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