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Transcript of Rwanda Genocide
The genocide lasted only 100 days, but in that short time span an estimated 500,000-1,000,000 people were killed. Approximately 20% of the country's population. This is a clip about a Rwanda survivor: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=2258246n In the small central African country of Rwanda, there was a deep running history of tension between the two major ethnic groups; the Hutus and the Tutsis. When the Belgian colonists settled in Rwanda in 1916, they created identity cards that specified the two ethnicity groups. The Belgians originally considered the Tutsis superior to the Hutus. The Belgians found it easier to enforce Tutsi superiority because they were the majority population. When Belgium granted Rwanda their independence in 1962, the Hutus took over. In the after math of the genocide, the Rwandan government refused to call it a genocide; instead insisting that it was merely a civil war. Rwanda originally had three ethnic groups:
*Twa- they were the hunters
*Hutu- they were the farmers
*Tutsi- they were cattle farmers The Germans took control
Lost control after WWI
Belgium gained control All got along until 19th century. *1959 marked the end of the Kings of Rwanda and resulted in 'The Hutu Revolution' killing 20,000 Tutsis
*1963-1967 about 100,000 Tutsis killed with machetes Hutus targeted the Tutsis long before 1994 President Habyarimana's plane is shot down after he signed a peace treaty with the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Still unsure who did it, but Hutus automatically blamed the Tutsis. This was the perfect excuse the Hutus needed to begin the massacre. April 6, 1994 The Hutus start killing the Tutsis. During the genocide:
-Women were systematically raped
-Children were murdered
-Tutsis were tortured *Bad economy/high unemployment blamed on Tutsis
*Segregation of neighborhoods
*Tutsi kids have to carry ID cards to school
*Kids (a.k.a. the Hutu children. Tustis had been kicked out of school before the massacre) are taught in school that the Tutsis are dangerous Hutus created "The Ten Commandments"
-Was a list of rules against Tutsis 1). A Hutu is a traitor if he:
a). marries a Tutsi woman
b). befriends a Tutsi woman
c). hires a Tutsi woman as a secretary or concubine 8). Every Hutu should stop having mercy on the Tutsi 6. The majority of the education sector, i.e. school pupils, students, teachers, must be Hutu. 10. The Social Revolution of 1959, the Referendum of 1961 and Hutu ideology must be taught at every level to every Hutu. Every Hutu must spread this ideology widely. Every Hutu who persecutes his Hutu brother because he has read, spread and taught this ideology is a traitor. *Used fear to turn the Hutus against the Tutsis
*Encouraged people to kill Tutsis
*No Tutsis should be spared (including children) Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines Radio show Mille Collines (RTLM) est. 1993 "Interahamwe" (Kinyarwanda word meaning "those who attack together") was a gang that was trained to hate and kill Tutsis.
Rwandan Genocide= Interahamwe vs. RPF Tutsis were called cockroaches and snakes DAPHROSA:
"Even before the war the neighbours
began to get suspicious of us and
behaved strangely towards us. We were
called snakes. We became housebound.
There were markets and shops we were
not allowed to use." The Tutsis were favored originally by the Belgians because they looked more "European", with a lighter skin tone and sharper nose. - 800,000 to 1 million Tutsis were killed in 100 days
-More than 6 men, women and children were murdered every minute of every hour of every day
-The 'Hotel Rwanda' hid 1,268 people, that many people would have been killed in approximately 4 hours
-Between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped
-More than 67% of women who were raped were infected with HIV or AIDS
-75,000 survivors were orphaned The UN's Involvement The leader of the UN mission in Rwanda, Romeo Dallaire, wrote later: "We watched as the devil took control of paradise and fed on the blood of the people we were supposed to protect." 1-3 were Tusti
7-9 were Hutu Two years before the outbreak of the genocide, the U.N. deployed 2,500 troops in Rwanda. They observed the tension and informed the international community of the massacre that would surely occur. In August of 1994 the Tutsi RPF group lead by Kagame retook the capital and soon after, the rest of the country, ending the genocide. When the Hutus discovered their reign had ended they feared Tutsi backlash and about 2 million Hutus fled the country into neighboring countries such as Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zaire. This mass exodus was referred to as the Great Lakes Refugee Crisis. Rwandan Refugees Camp in Zaire UN referred to as "a Revision of Hell" -Genocides like the Holocaust lasted for many years and were meticulously planned by an organized group with a charismatic leader.
-Rwandan Genocide had no "leader"
-Was locals killing out of vengeance
-Not a systematic killing -Hutus were the instigators
- Likely that about 1/2 of the deaths during the Rwandan killings were Hutus
- Rwanda was a very poor country to begin with so most of the killings were done by the closest tools they could find:
-Hippopotamus Hide Whip
-Spears -Before the genocide HIV and AIDS were a problem
-Systematic raping of women caused the number of people with AIDS to increase exponentially
-passing it on to their children
-People have called AIDS in Rwanda the genocide that keeps on killing Stanislas Lefranc (Belgian Magistrate) wrote: "Trembling, haggard, they lie face down on the ground.
Two of their companions, sometimes four, seize them by the feet and hands, and remove their cotton drawers.
Each time that the torturer lifts up the chicotte (hippopotamus whip), a reddish stripe appears on the skin of the pitiful victims, who, however firmly held, gasp in frightful contortions.
At the first blows the unhappy victims let out horrible cries which soon become groans.
In a refinement of evil, some officers, and I've witnessed this, demand that when the sufferer gets up, panting, he must graciously give the military salute. Dehumanization
*Cockroaches became military slang as offensive and dehumanizing as the word 'nigger' is in America
*Tutsi were called cockroaches because "they came out at night and were hard to kill"
* Tutsis were also referred to as trees because of their historical height difference
* Hutus called out "Cut the tall trees. Clean your neighborhood. Do your duty." Stereotypical
-He believed the Tutsis were a lost tribe of Christians and thus carried the noble blood line
-Whereas he believed the Hutus were descendants of Noah's son Ham who committed sin and was cursed by his father.
*Hutu and Tutsi status was passed down from the father and when the killings began children of mixed marriages were of their father status so those with a Hutu father and a Tutsi mother lived, while those with a Tutsi father and a Hutu mother were killed. * It is said that under Belgian control things became so separated that Belgians actually sent scientists to Rwanda to measure the nose lengths of Hutus and Tutsis
*The result of their studies: Tutsi noses are on average.... 2.5 milimeters longer than a Hutus -At first the United States refused to acknowledge the killings that occurred as a genocide.
- France was the only country from the UN to respond by sending in troops called 'Operation Turquoise'
-Unfortunately France's motivation was not to save lives, but instead to build up their alliance with the Hutu
-France helped Hutu war criminals escape so they wouldn't have to answer for their crimes The legacy of the genocide lives in the families that were torn apart.
-1 in 4 households in Rwanda are now headed by children, the eldest sibling
-about 20,000 children were conceived of rape during the genocide
-Women and children who were raped or conceived in rape (and are now HIV positive because of it) have been rejected by their families
-the population or Rwanda is now 70% female As it is told by BBC reporter Fergal Keane:
A girl who we will call Marie, was 20 at the time of massacre. She was hiding when Mayor Gacumbitsi drove past.
"He was a friend of my father", she says: "When I saw him I thought that no harm can come to me."
But Gacumbitsi was angry. He raped her and told the six policemen to do the same. "We are going to rape you to death," she remembers him saying.
She is only alive because a Hutu man, Gacumbitsi's deputy Matthew Fashingabo, and his wife gave her shelter and smuggled her out of the country.
Why had he acted with such bravery? "Because I know that we are all human beings," he says.
Marie was captured near Nyarubuye by Hutus who took her as a sex slave and raped her more than 100 times.
Marie contracted Aids from her rapists and afterwards discovered that she was pregnant. That baby died of Aids and Marie is now in the final stages of the disease.
She says: "I don't know why this happened to me. I was a good person. It wasn't my fault. I was born a Tutsi." "Some people did not even find someone
to kill because there were more
killers than victims" Good Guy or Bad Guy? -Conflicting opinions
-Received International Medal of Peace
-In trials afterward made the case that 'no conspiracy, no planning...no genocide?' Paul Kagame Sadi Bugingo (47yrs old)-
*Accused of taking part of the killing of 2,000 people (mostly Tutsi)
*Plead "not guilty"
*Trial in Norway
*If found guilty he has a max. sentence of 21 years in prison
*Trial started Sep. 25, 2012
*Expected to last months with a verdict in 2013 Trails are still going on today. Current Trial: The stereotype of "tall, light, superior, Tutsis, and short, dark, inferior, Hutus" came from a British explorer John Hanning Speke who discovered the Rwandan tribes in the 1800's. Now, because of marriage between the two, and the progression of time, it is almost impossible to differentiate between them.