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SPRT1022 - 10th December 2013

Dan Eastough

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Practice

Baddeley and Longman‘s typing skills study -

All trainees received 60 hours of training
Researchers used mass practice and distributed schedules that varied the lengths and frequency of the training sessions.

Keeping practice session short and only practising once a day led to better learning than sessions that are long and fewer in number.

However: Trainees preferred mass over distributive practice in learning the skill which is exactly opposite of the results

Such results replicated in number of studies relating to motor skills learning

Learning Outcomes
Describe the concept of practice structure and explain its importance
Discuss the difference between blocked- and random-practice schedules
Describe the difference between constant- and varied-practice schedules
Identify whole, and part practice techniques
You have been supervising a cricket development camp for a group of under 12's. For weeks the participants have practiced a variety of skills in series of 12 one-hour sessions.
Dan Eastough
During each session, campers practice one skill, rotate to a second skill, and so on. When the performers practice this way, the seem increasingly proficient in performing most skills.
However, each time the play a game of cricket, the learners fail to demonstrate the level of skill they had previously demonstrated in practice.
SPRT 1022
Stage of learning
Type of Skill
produces generalisability to novel variations of the skill .
(Schmidt & Wrisbeg 2008)
Allowing performers to apply what they have learned to the performance of similar actions that have not specifically been attempted before (Catalon & Kleiner 1984).
Benefits of Variability
Harm of Variability
Performers who experience more variability learn more compared to constant practice.

Learner experiences a variety of movement and context characteristics while practicing the skill
Practice variability will cause more errors during practice
However transfer to a novel task is enhanced
Regulatory conditions - directly influence the movement characteristics
Non-regulatory conditions - indirectly influence the movement characteristics
eg. Velocity, force, surface, opponents, distance
eg. crowd, weather
Closed skills
Open Skills
Blocked Practice
Random Practice
Rehearsal of the same skill repeatedly during
a session.
A range of skills completed in a random order, avoiding consecutive repetitions.
Serial Practice
Rehearsal of a range of skills in a specified order.
all variations
all variations
schedule of
short blocks.
all variations
schedule of
short blocks,
all variations
not repeated,
of one
Why why why?
Elaboration hypothesis
Desirable difficulties are believed to develop during random practice, which suggests that practice is made difficult and performance decreases. However, requiring the learner to exercise certain processes is beneficial for performing in the target context.

Forgetting Hypothesis
Is an explanation for contextual interference that states that random practice causes people to appreciate the distinctiveness of different tasks better, whereas blocked practice allows people to bypass such comparisons.
Contextual interference - the interference that results from performing variations of a skill within the context of practice (Magill 2001).
Don't get confused!!
The random-blocked practice concept refers to
those situations where learners practice several different skills involving different generalised motor programs.
The varied-constant practice concept involves the
rehearsal of variations of the same generalised motor program.
Research shows that characteristics of a practice environment, that are not part of the skill to be learned, become part of what gets learned.

Practice should included as many features of the test or performance environment as possible in practice
Overlearning -
Practice that continues beyond the amount needed to achieve a certain performance criterion.
(Magill 2001)
(Travlos 1999)
Overlearning -
Practice that continues beyond the amount needed to achieve a certain performance criterion.
(Magill 2001)
(Travlos 1999)
Massed - a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between practice sessions or trials is very short.
Distributed- a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between practice sessions or trials is relatively long.
1. Less levels of fatigue both mentally and physically

2. Mass learning required less cognitive effort because of repetition becoming monotonous or boring

3. Memory consolidation hypothesis, that is, to store in memory relevant information one requires a certain amount of time without additional practice to transfer the information to permanent memory

Explanation of the Results
1. Analysis of skill
How many parts are there?

2. Evaluate the skill on a continuum of skill complexity from high to low and organization from high to low.

Most motor skills and sport skills are closer to complex
Group parts (of skill) into natural ‘sections’ to evaluate organization - are these sections dependent upon each other or independent?

Segmentation (Part)
Involves separating the skill into parts and then practising one part.
- Problem is putting the practice parts back together to perform the skill

Progressive Part is strategy used to prevent this problem
Practice part A then AB then ABC then entire skill

Simplification (Part)
Involves reducing difficulty of the whole skill or specific parts of a skill e.g.

-Reduce the difficulty of the objects
-Reduce speed
-Reduce the attention demands of the skill

Attention approach (Part)
Directing the performers attention to focus on one part of the skill (momentary intentions)

Allows one to practice the entire skill but establishes a part practice environment

Results indicate that the attention approach is effective over not receiving strategic attention strategies

Classification of skill and level of learner will impact practice effects and organisation
Learning new skills takes mental and physical effort
What learners prefer might not be what gives the best results
Methods of simplification may be necessary for optimal results
Further reading
Adams, J. A. (1971) A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3: 111-150

Fitts, P. M. & Posner, M. I. (1967) Human Performance. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

Gentile, A.M. (1987) Skill acquisition: Action, movement, and neuromotor processes. In: J.H. Carr and R.B. Shepherd (Eds.), Movement science: Foundations for physical therapy in rehabilitation. (pp. 93-154). Rockville, MD: Aspen Publishers.

Kozar, B., Vaughn, R., Lord, R. & Whitfield, K. (1995) Basketball free-throw performance: Practice implications. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18 (2), 123.

Schmidt, R. A. & Lee, T. D. (2005) Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Schmidt, R. A. & Wrisberg, C. A. (2008) Motor Learning and Performance: A Situation-Based Learning Approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Weinberg R. S. & Gould D. (2007) Foundations of Sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Further reading
Schmidt & Wrisberg (2008)
Chapter 9
Magill (2011)
- Chapter 16-18
Baddeley, A & Longman, D. (1978) The influence of length and frequency of training session on the rate of learning to type. Ergonomics, 21, 627-635.

Magill, R. A. (2011) Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill

Schmidt, R. A. & Wrisberg, C. A. (2008) Motor Learning and Performance: A Situation-Based Learning Approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Travlos, A. (1999) More practice does not necessarily enhance transfer of learning: Evidence and interpretations. Perceptual Motor skills, 89, 116-1175.

Group 1
- 11:00 - 12:45 RBG007
(Riverside Physical activity hall)

Group 2
- 11:00 - 12:45 TT005
(MPC Lab)
Full transcript