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A2 PE Psychology Intensive Revision

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Clare Thrower

on 23 May 2016

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Transcript of A2 PE Psychology Intensive Revision

Attitudes
Groups and teams
Group formation
Cohesion
A2 PE Intensive Revision
A2 PE Psychology
Personality
Arousal
Anxiety
Confidence
Attribution
Aggression
Attitudes
Groups
Social Facilitation
Leadership
Personality
Theories of personality
- describe and evaluate
Mood - POMS
Personality Testing
- describe methods and evaluate
Achievement Motivation
Achievement Motivation
Level of competitiveness
Linked to Interactionist Theory of Personality

Sports performers exhibit both:
nAF (Need to avoid failure)
and
nACH (Need to achieve)
characteristics

Achievement Motivation = nACH - nAF

Coaches need to help develop nACH characteristics
APPROACH behaviour
rather than
AVOIDANCE behaviour
Changing Attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Cause a
conflict
within the triadic model to cause
positive consonance.



"Personality is the sum of an individual's characteristics which make a human unique"
(Hollander)
Trait theory:
Innate, enduring, stable characteristics.
Behaviour can be predicted.
Social learning theory:
Behaviour learned through experiences
Vicarious experiences (significant others)
Observed behaviour is copied if successful
Interactionist Theory:
Traits and Environment
Behaviour adapts to the situation
Strong and weak situations
B = f (P x E)
Is there a sporting personality?

Personality Testing








Attitudes are formed mainly through experiences.
Shaw (1976)
“two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person”
.

Group dynamics:
Norms (code of conduct)
Roles (set behaviours)
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
“a dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives”
Carron (1982)

Task cohesion + Social cohesion
Persuasive communication theory
This could be applied within cognitive dissonance as an additional technique in changing attitude.

Discussion
Argument
Debate

Role model of similar social background
What is the difference between
aggression
and
assertion
?
Aggression
What are the
causes
of aggressive behaviour?
Explain each of the four theories:
1. Instinct Theory
2. Social Learning Theory

3. Frustration-aggression Hypothesis
4. Aggressive cue Theory
How would a
coach
or
official
eliminate aggressive tendencies?
Narrow Band Theory:
High arousal
Competitive
No tolerance
Patient
Low stress
Slow worker
Eysenck's model:
Attention
Retention
Motor reproduction
Motivation -
behaviour likely to be repeated if praised or successful
Hollander's
model
Mood
How does mood effect sporting performance?

POMS
Profile of mood states

Many successful athletes exhibit an
Iceberg Profile










nACH
High SE
Likes challenges
Takes risks
Failure is a step to success
Likes feedback
Attributes success internally
Likes and audience
High incentive value tasks

nAF
Low SE
Dislikes challenges
Likes tasks with a high probability of success
Dislikes feedback
Attributes failure internally
Learned helplessness
Other strategies:

Education
Punishing prejudice
Praise
Positive, successful experiences
TRIADIC
model
Cognitive
Affective
Behavioural
How are attitudes formed?

Socialisation
Past experiences
Media
Attribution Theory

Reasons athletes give for success and failure

Coaches try to increase 'Mastery Orientation' where athletes attribute
success to internal reasons
and
failure to external reasons.
Learned Helplessness
Attributing failure to internal, stable reasons
Failure is inevitable
General OR Specific
Self-serving Bias
Attributing success internally
High self efficacy
Attribution Retraining
SMART goals
Process or performance goals
Increase self efficacy
Highlight successful performances
Positive reinforcement
Team cohesion
Carron's Antecedents
Strategies to improve cohesion

Praise cohesive behaviour
Encourage group identity
Provide leadership that matches the group’s style
Develop social cohesion
Allocate roles and responsibilities
Select ‘team’ players rather than individual stars
Highlight individual statistics
Steiner's Model of group Productivity

Actual Productivity =
Potential productivity - Losses due to faulty processes

Potential productivity - this is the best possible performance of the team given its
resources
and task
demands
.

Faulty processes - issues with
motivation
and
coordination
.
Faulty processes can also include issues with cohesion

Ringelmann effect:

“Average individual performance decreases as group size increases.”

Social loafing:

"the reduced effort that an individual exerts when working with others due to the Ringlemann effect."
Eliminating social loafing

Ensure individuals understand the importance of their
contribution and role
.

Give regular
feedback
on performance. Use of
rewards
.

Identify
individual contributions
– use of
statistics
(tackle counts, assists etc).

Develop
peer pressure
and team
cohesion
to
motivate
each other.

Implement
regular fitness testing
throughout the season.
Arousal
Theories of arousal

Drive:
Dominant response, Novice and Elite, Linear relationship
Inverted-U:
OLA, task/personality/stage of learning dependent
Catastrophe:
Stress beyond OLA, dramatic decline, cognitive strategies
Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF):
Optimal range, Specific to individual
“The state of alertness or readiness of an individual to perform a task.”

An athlete’s level of arousal varies on a continuum from deep sleep to extreme excitement.

Symptoms:
Cognitive
and
Somatic

Peak Flow

Remaining in your IZOF

Smooth, efficient, effortless, controlled performance. 'Autopilot'. Success the only outcome.

Anxiety
Stress:
"A perceived imbalance between the demands of the situation and the feelings of capability of meeting those demands."

Eustress

Anxiety
Stressors
Impact of anxiety on the elite performer

Fear of failure
Evaluation apprehension
Social inhibition
Anxiety Definitions

Cognitive
Somatic
Trait
State
Competitive state
Competitive trait
Strategies to control anxiety
(or arousal)
Cognitive
Thought stopping
Positive self-talk
Imagery
Visualisation
Attentional control
Strategies to control anxiety
(or arousal)
Somatic
PMR
Biofeedback
Centring
Breathing control

Strategies to control anxiety

Goal Setting
Outcome
Performance
Process
SMART
LEADERSHIP

Characteristics
of an effective leader

Types of leader:
Prescribed and Emergent

Leadership styles:
Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire

Theories:
Great Man, SLT, Interactionist
Theoretical Models
for Successful Leadership in Sport
Fiedler's Contingency Model
Chelladurai's Multi-dimensional Model
SOCIAL FACILITATION

Social Facilitation:

“The
positive
influence of the presence of others on performance”

Social Inhibition:

“The
negative
influence of the presence of others on performance”
Zajonc's "Others"

Interactive others

Opposition
and
team mates

Supporters
– biased fans

Passive others

Audience
- passive spectators who observe and make no comments.
Co-actors
- people doing the same thing at
the same time without competition.
Zajonc thought that even the presence of passive others increased the effects of social facilitation.

Audience increases...
AROUSAL
Increased arousal leads to...
DOMINANT RESPONSE
Link to DRIVE theory
Link to INVERTED-U theory
Alternative theories...
Baron's Distraction-Conflict Theory
Alternative theories...
Home Field Advantage

Large numbers of supporters – the closer to play the better
Familiarity with venue, no travel issues
Low uncertainty – anxiety remains low

However, crowd expectations can be excessively high at home, causing social inhibition.

Strategies to increase social facilitation

Familiarisation training
Increase self-efficacy
Improve selective attention
Arousal control strategies
CONFIDENCE

Trait self-confidence
Self-efficacy
Bandura's Theory of Self-Efficacy

Factors that determine an athlete's level of SE:
Past Performance Accomplishments (the most important factor!)
Vicarious Experiences
Verbal Persuasion
Emotional Arousal
Improving Self-Efficacy

Highlight positive Past Performances
Watch successful Vicarious Experiences
Use motivational and realistic Verbal Persuasion
Emotional Arousal appropriate to individual
Credulous

and
Sceptical
approaches
Full transcript