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Types of Chemical Reactions

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Sandra Loor

on 30 May 2017

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Transcript of Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions
Chemical reactions can be classified into different categories. Five common types are synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement and combustion.
A synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more reactants combine to produce a single (more complex) product.
A
decomposition reaction
is a reaction in which a large or more complex molecule
breaks down
to form two (or more) simpler products.
A
single displacement reaction
is a reaction in which an element displaces another element in a compound, producing a new compound and releasing an element.
Synthesis Reactions
Decomposition Reactions
Single Displacement Reactions
also called
Single Replacement
Evidences of a Chemical Changes
In a
chemical change
, one or more
NEW
substances are created. The new substance is different from the original. That is, it has properties that are different than those of the starting materials.
HEAT OR LIGHT IS PRODUCED
CHANGE OF COLOUR
A MATERIAL WITH NEW PROPERTIES IS
FORMED (PRECIPITATE)
RELEASE OF A GAS
CHANGE IS DIFFICULT TO REVERSE
Double Displacement Reactions
(Double Replacement)
Iron + Sulfur --> Iron (II) sulfide
Fe + S --> FeS
Synthesis and Decomposition reactions are OPPOSITES of each other
Sometimes decomposition reactions are undesirable. When a compound breaks down in a decomposition reaction, this indicates that the stability of that compound has been compromised.
Environmental conditions such as humidity, heat, or radiation can make a compound decompose.
Zn + S -> ZnS
ZnS -> Zn + S
How would you categorize
the following reaction?
A + B + C -> ABC?
Learning Check
How would you categorize
the following reaction?
ABC -> AB + C?
Learning Check
Single displacement reactions will occur when one element is
more reactive
than a the corresponding element in a compound. In the generalized equation: A + BC ---> AC + B, A is more reactive than B, causing a reaction to occur.
Two types: metal replacement or nonmetal replacement
Example: Reaction between copper and silver nitrate.
A corresponds to copper
B corresponds to silver
C corresponds to nitrate
In a single displacement reaction involving an ionic compound and a metal, it is always the positive ion (cation) that is replaced in the compound. They usually occur in aqueous solution, because the ions must be mobile.
So far, all the reactions which we have studied have been classified by the type of atom rearrangement that happens in the reaction.
Combustion reactions are different in that they are characterized by the fact that one of the reactants is always oxygen.
Combustion Reactions
Review of Types of Chemical Reactions
Complete Combustion of a Hydrocarbon
Complete combustion reactions produce a limited number of products when a reactant is burned in oxygen. A hydrocarbon burning in pure oxygen will only produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. This type of combustion reaction will only occur when the supply of oxygen is plentiful.
The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
Incomplete Combustion
Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen for complete combustion.

The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
A + B ---> AB

The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
AB ----> A + B

The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown a
s:
AB + C ----> AC + B
(nonmetal)
or
AB + C ----> CB + A
(metal)

The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
AB + CD ----> AD + CB
A double displacement reaction is a reaction that occurs when elements in different compounds displace each other or exchange places, producing two new compounds.
The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as:
A combustion reaction is a rapid reaction of a metal with oxygen to produce oxides and energy (burning or a flame).
This is the most common form of Combustion.
Specific reactions corresponding to these general types are associated with health issues, environmental problems, and manufacturing processes.
In order to use chemical reactions or evaluate their effects, you need to be able to identify the type of reaction.
word equation
water
hydrogen + oxygen
uses the actual names of elements and compounds
An equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words
Numbers of reacting atoms of each element are the same as those produced.
Chemical Reactions
Many double displacement reactions occur between two ionic compounds in solutions where the
cations and anions switch places.
Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide --> Lead (II) Iodide + Potassium Nitrate
A B + C D --> A D + C B
Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide --> Lead (II) Iodide + Potassium Nitrate
Sometimes, in a reaction of aqueous reactants, one of the products is
insoluble
. This product is called a
precipitate
and appears as a solid in the solution.
A B + C D --> A D + C B
Potassium Iodide is insoluable and form a precipitate
Precipitate
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