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Glonacal Agency Heuristic & Global Higher Education Matrix

The best prezi presentation in the history of Higher Education presented by a winning team of MEd students at The University of Hong Kong, Class 2013

Cheriann Wong

on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of Glonacal Agency Heuristic & Global Higher Education Matrix

Human Agency
What is Heuristic?
a mental short cut
created base on experience
save energy and time
efficient , but not perfect
give only satisfactory solution
Decentralization &
Autonomy at Understructure

Responsibility Center Management (RCM)
A concept derived from linguistics

In organizational term, it is a middle range theory to reconcile the two opposed streams of thoughts:
- Convergence thesis (new institutionalist approach)
- Divergence thesis (strategic and translation approach)

Vaira’s (2004)’s definition: “Declension of a same pattern”
Glonacal Agency Heuristic
Institutional Agency
Politically and socially highly legitimated agency, e.g. UNESCO, World Bank

Define the appropriate and legitimate form for higher education in the global age

Act as elaboration and dissemination agencies on a global scale by constructing a world polity that national higher education policies and institutions have to face when they operate
1. Can universities reconcile global and local demands? How can they do it?

2. What is more important: human or institutional agency? 

3. What does it really mean in the practical work and governance of universities?

4. How do the Responsibility Center Management and Responsibility Center Budgeting and other budgeting arrangements in universities change the nature of governance and accountability at the understructure level?
directly reflected
and better understanding of operations and finance.
Active engagement with

Better allocation of limited resources.
Impact on students
courses are offered
Prestigious scholars focusing on research, lower-paid teaching staff
Popular programs may
charge more

1. Can universities reconcile global and local demands? How can they do it?
heuristic / matrix approach
to identify and understand agency activities and stakeholder demands at multiple planes and levels
integrated analysis of the
between e.g. stakeholder demands, economical pressure, global processes, local forces etc.
Indiana University
University of Southern California
University of Michigan
University of Pennsylvania
University of Colorado
Kent State University
University of Oregon
University of Toronto

Variations at private schools.
Where are they applied?
Impact on Organization
Works for disciplines with
strong positions
- Can "weaker" ones survive?
ex: Is Divinity less important than Engineering?

2. What is more important: human or institutional agency?
3. What does it really mean in the practical work and governance of universities?
The Understructure needs the "multi-level stakeholder" strategy.
Maintaining network of stakeholders at different levels
Boundary management
A common goal and a clear organizational structure
4. How do the Responsibility Center Management, the Responsibility Center Budgeting and other budgeting arrangements in universities change the nature of governance and accountability at the understructure level?
European Network of
Debt and Development
A network of 48 non- governmental organizations from 19 European countries working on issues related to debt, development finance and poverty reduction.

Offers a platform for exploring issues, collecting intelligence and ideas, and undertaking collective advocacy.

The main institutions targeted by the Eurodad network are European governments,
the World Bank
International Monetary Fund
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Human Agency
Focuses on the sensemaking and interpretation process whereby the organizational actors “receive, select, make sense of, interpret, combine, re-construct, use, in a word, translate them in the face of their organizational cultural and knowledge context of action and purposes”

push for development policies that support pro-poor and democratically-defined sustainable development strategies.

support the empowerment of Southern people to chart their own path towards development and ending poverty.

seek a lasting and sustainable solution to the debt crisis, appropriate development financing, and a stable international financial system conducive to development.

“The report reveals that impoverished countries still face
an unacceptably high and rising number of conditions in order to gain access to World Bank and IMF development finance
. On average poor countries face as many as 67 conditions per World Bank loan.”

“In the case of the IMF, the Fund imposes
two types of policy conditions
to its lending in poor countries –
quantitative conditions
structural conditions
. Quantitative conditions impose a set of macroeconomic targets on poor country governments determining, for example, the level of fiscal deficit a government is allowed to go into or the level of domestic credit allowed. Structural conditions, on the other hand, push for institutional and legislative policy reforms within countries. They include, for example, trade reform, price liberalisation and privatisation.”
Ex: An academic program manages revenues from its own student enrollments and research activities.

Revenue up - more staff, new courses and bigger research space for the program.

Revenue down - restructure curriculum and staff allocation, yield facilities to cover the costs.
Impact on Academics
Only visible
Research activities bound by
fiscal years
Researchers are not
Still require professional managers ----
Where's a
cademic management
- Does that cost?
- Just a
small-scale Structure

Stronger administrative control?
Does it really work?
Criticized by many, including university leaders.

Public universities out of budget shortages.
Arizona & Washington newly joined.
- Often a financial approach from the Structure level
a.k.a., Responsibility Center Budget, Value-Centered Management, Incentives-Based Planning and Budgeting....
For University governance,
Glonacal - Just more sources of influence?
How can a university reconcile such pressures and sound performance at the understructure?

Adams, E. M. (1997). Rationality in the Academy Why Responsibility Center Budgeting Is a Wrong Step Down the Wrong Road. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 29(5), 58-61.
California, U. o. (2012). UC Annual Financial Report. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://map.ais.ucla.edu/go/1002097
Dubeck, L. W. (1997). Beware higher ed’s newest budget twist. Thought and Action, 13(1), 81-91.
Enders, J. (2004). Higher education, internationalisation, and the nation-state: Recent developments and challenges to governance theory. Higher education, 47(3), 361-382.
Hou, Y.-C., Morse, R., Ince, M., Chen, H.-J., Chiang, C.-L., & Chan, Y. (2013). Is the Asian quality assurance system for higher education going glonacal? Assessing the impact of three types of program accreditation on Taiwanese universities. Studies in Higher Education, 1-23. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2013.818638
Jones, G. A., & Oleksiyenko, A. (2011). The internationalization of Canadian university research: A global higher education matrix analysis of multi-level governance. Higher education, 61(1), 41-57.
Kovach, H., & Lansman, Y. (2006). World Bank and IMF conditionality: a development injustice. A report of the European Network on Debt and Development (Eurodad).
Lang, D. W. (1999a). A primer on responsibility centre budgeting and responsibility centre management. CSSHE Professional File, 17, 1 - 24.
Lang, D. W. (1999b). Responsibility centre budgeting and responsibility centre management in theory and practice. Higher Education Management, 11(3), 81-112.
Marginson, S. (2006). Dynamics of national and global competition in higher education. Higher education, 52(1), 1-39.
Marginson, S., & Rhoades, G. (2002). Beyond national states, markets, and systems of higher education: A glonacal agency heuristic. Higher education, 43(3), 281-309.
Oleksiyenko, A. (2013). Organizational Legitimacy of International Research Collaborations: Crossing Boundaries in the Middle East. Minerva, 1-21.
Oregon, T. U. o. (2013). Oregon Budget Model. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://budgetmodel.uoregon.edu/content/introduction-responsibility-centered-management
Strauss, J. C., & Curry, J. R. (2002). Responsibility Center Management: Lessons from 25 Years of Decentralized Management: ERIC.
Vaira, M. (2004). Globalization and higher education organizational change: A framework for analysis. Higher education, 48(4), 483-510.
Vidovich, L., O’Donoghue, T., & Tight, M. (2012). Transforming university curriculum policies in a global knowledge era: mapping a “global case study” research agenda. Educational Studies, 38(3), 283-295.
Wilms, W. W., Teruya, C., & Walpole, M. (1997). Fiscal reform at UCLA: The clash of accountability and academic freedom. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 29(5), 40-49.

Level of Governance
Glonacal Research Emphasis
Global Higher
Education Matrix

Federal Level
focus on national agenda
not supportive for international research activities
Provincial Level
focus on provincial agenda
not supportive enough for international research activities
Institutional Level
although, institution recognized the importance of internationalizing research
due to lack of federal and provincial funding
when faced with “demand overload,”
placed a low priority on internationalization of research
Big Surprise!
Result: High level of international research
how does the heuristic work?
Institutional Agencies
think of it as
a universal packing list...

Marginson and Rhoades:
What are
from the discussion?
forces and processes
institutional and human
Institutional Agency
Human Agency
institutional agency
institutional agency
HE professional
institutional agency

human agency

human agency
HE professional
human agency
human and institutional agency
glo-na-cal planes
state - professional - market
focus on organization and collective actions (
international organizations, e.g. World Bank
local HE institutions, e.g. HKU
national units, e.g. UK Department for Education
collective or individual human actions
social groups such as student societies
actions of individual researcher
reciprocity -
multiple directions
of agency influences and activities
multi-leveled analysis
HE professional institutional agency
HE professional institutional agency
HE professional institutional agency
HE professional human agency
HE professional human agency
HE professional human agency
HE professional
institutional agency
HE professional
human agency
Global institutional agency
Local institutional agency
National institutional agency

institutional agency

institutional agency
HE Professional
institutional agency
institutional agency

institutional agency
HE Professional

institutional agency

institutional agency

institutional agency
HE Professional
institutional agency
organization or individual
has power to take actions
National system occupied the center of discussion
Local responses to and variation of global processes can use more in-depth analysis
Globalization is not a new concept, BUT literature of globalization in HE was quite thin
Burton Clark's Triangle
an important heuristic for comparative studies
analyze state, market and professional control over HE in different countries
magnitude of agency influences and activities
stronger ? weaker?
direct? indirect?
agency influences and activities are layered on-top of history and current conditions
scope of agency activities and influences
Analyzing agency
influence and activity

Internationalization of
Canadian University Research
Glo-na-cal analysis
Marginson & Rhoades (2002)
Burton Clark (1983)
Multi-level governance

Despite lack of centralized supports
HIGH level of international research
activities at both Faculties of Education and Medicine.

a result of
unorganized grass-root effort
put pressure on individual researcher to engage in more international projects
individual researchers pursuit
funding outside national, provincial, institutional frameworks
to finance their international projects
Faculty Level
Both have the power to influence national HE.
- Institutions influence and cast policies at regional and global levels.
- Human agency = translators.
At research-intensive settings, Human agency is more important.
- Eyes at "ground level".
- Institutional agency reacts late.
1991 Edward Whalen @ Indiana University

Rooted in decentralization in 70s.
Reaction to state funding cut.

A university section takes both responsibilities and autonomy in managing itself.

Advancement from
Marginson & Rhaodes
An integrated and holistic analysis
: research emphasis on multiple planes of international, national, local
: Federal, provincial, institutional, faculty
: dynamic interactions of multi-level policy perspective and initiatives
disconnections and conflicts between between multiple levels of governance
research happens at the Understructure
guided by

opportunistic strategy
of individual researchers
resistant to top-down strategy, refuse to compromise
research autonomy
is the strategy
gains greater
Able to focus on "what should be focused" over agendas from above.
- Case of UCLA: opted out from RCM, implemented a new model -
joint effort
by Admin. and Academics.
prioritizing stakeholder
create boundary objects to engage agency
be entrepreneurial to diversify resources
reconcile global and local demands by:
Full transcript