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Disaster Management - Tectonic Activity
Transcript of Disaster Management - Tectonic Activity
Potential Earthquake Hazards Latest Trends and technology that may improve disaster response planning By Ilhaam, Angela, Giselle, & Sydney Disaster Preparation Primary Effects Secondary Effects - Ground shaking: caused by seismic waves (surface waves) near epicentre
Intensity depends on:
- geologic conditions
- size of earthquake
- distance from epicentre
- type of building construction
- Faulting & Ground Rupture: building across fault will collapse
- Liquefaction: soil loosens and flows
- Flooding - Aftershocks: smaller earthquake after main one causes further collapse of buildings
- Fire: power lines are knocked down, natural gas lines rupture. If water lines break, there's not water to stop the fire.
- Landslides: Falling rock and debris
- Changes in ground level
- Flooding: rupture of dams and other stuctures Plate Tectonic Present in this Community:
The Juan de Fuca Plate (Subduction Zone)
- Risk of earthquakes
- On the western edge of plate, new seafloor is created by plate boundary spreading and volcanic activity
- Smallest of the Earth's 13 plates
- The Pacific plate and North American plate
- Volcanically active Tsunamis:
- We are not in risk of a tsunami caused by an earthquake in the Juan de Fuca zone
- Aleutian Trench south of Alaska (subduction zone) is the only one that poses a threat to Vancouver and the West Coast of Canada School Municipal Provincial Federal http://www.getprepared.gc.ca/index-eng.aspx http://www.emergencyinfobc.gov.bc.ca/? The Federal government has a wide range of
resources with information on how to be
prepared for disasters, including videos, publications
and a mobile website. However, it focuses on how
important it is to have a family emergency plan and
have an emergency preparedness kit. Federal publications give a background on what to do before an earthquake, what to expect during an earthquake, and what to do after an earthquake. The federal government will provide financial aid as well as emergency services. http://www.coquitlam.ca/public-safety/emergency-preparedness/public-education/earthquake-preparedness.aspx British Columbia is very well prepared for eathquakes and natural disasters. The lower mainland has disaster response routes (shown in the map on the next slide). These routes are a unified network of roads intended to allow emergency services to travel when they are needed in disasters. The province also has an Emergency Response Management System (BCERMS). This is a 4 level plan which includes fire/rescue/ RCMP on the bottom level, leading up to more drastic response measures. The city of Coquitlam promises to "provide overall emergency policy and direction". Coquitlam also follows the provincial BCERMS system (next slide). Coquitlam's plan lists numerous volunteer organizations that are prepared to respond to emergeny situations.
-Telephone service providers offer the Emergency
Telecommunications Data System (ETDS) so calls have priority during emergency situations. Emergency response units will aid in the rescue and
evacuation of the community
during times of emergency Potential earthquake hazards ranked from hazards with the greatest to the least potential impact. 2. Ground Motion – This is when the ground moves during an earthquake due to seismic waves, especially surface waves near the epicenter. Ground shaking can destroy structures among other things on the ground. Important factors that affect the damage done to the area depend on the duration and intensity of the earthquake, including the local geology and the distance the location is from the epicenter. 3. Tsunami – Caused by sub-sea faulting of the ocean floor that sends seismic waves through the water and creates enormous waves that can be up to 100ft. This is very devastating because it can cause floods and destroy structures. 4. Liquefaction- During a moderate to powerful earthquake, the seismic waves combine the groundwater, sand and soil to make liquefaction. The product is soil like quicksand. Buildings and other structures on this soil will collapse because the foundations will sink. 5. Aftershock– This is a smaller earthquake after the main large earthquake shock. The larger the main shock, the larger and more numerous aftershocks, and the longer they will continue. This is very dangerous because it can destroy and further damage already battered structures. 6. Fire – This is usually caused by electrical lines that go down and from gas lines that are ruptured. This situation is hard to contain because water lines would most likely be broken so people would not be able to put out the fires. This also destroys many structures. 7.Flooding– This can be caused by many things such as broken main water pipes, broken dams and earthquake generated tsunamis. This floods areas and damages and destroys buildings and other structures. 8. Changes in ground level– This is caused by faulting. Earthquakes can cause both uplift and subsidence of the land surface. It may damage structures and their foundation because the uneven ground. 1.Faulting and Ground Rupture – This occurs during an earthquake when the fault zone moves. This is devastating because there are large ruptures in the ground, as a result structures built across the fault zones will collapse. 9. Landslides– Landslides are when lots of rocks and debris fall off a steep incline. Landslides are common in mountainous regions; they are triggered by ground shaking. They can be very destructive and dangerous to anything underneath it. Cause and Impact of Japan Eathquake and Tsunami Cause of Japan Earthquake: Sudden movement of Pacific Tectonic Plate under North American plate caused massive earthquake and Tsunami
-The earthquake was a result of thrust faulting, a violent movement of Pacific Plate compressing underneath North American plate, forcing it upward. Cause of Tsunami: Upward movement of plate releases large amounts of energy and displaces vast amount of ocean water, causing a Tsunami Impact of Earthquake:
-Aftershocks of 6.0 or greater
-worst earthquake in Japan's History
-Washed far inland-sparking massive fires, swamping towns
-30,000 deaths and 15,000 missing
-46,000 buildings destoryed
-Damage of 16-25 million yen
170,000 households without water Effectiveness of Japan Earthquake:
-set up emergency helpline
-34 countries offered aid
-Made buildings more resistant to Earthquake
-Households ordered to keep survivial kit consisting of food and water.
-help such as shelter and transport National Earthquake Information Center:
determines the location and size of the destructive earthquakes worldwide to spread information to concerned agencies, scientists, and the public. The NEIC maintains a databaseon earthquake parameters. Advanced National Seismic System: To provide accurate and timely data to seismic events, including their effects on buildings and structures.
-maintain an advanced infrastructure.
-continously monitor earthquake and seismic disturbances. such as earthquake that may lead to a tsunami
-measure strong earthquake shaking at ground sites and in buildings
-Automatically broadcast infromation when am earthquake occurs •DROP, COVER AND HOLD ON.
•Stay inside. Stay away from windows, shelves and heavy objects which may fall.
•DROP under heavy furniture such as a table, desk or any solid furniture.
•COVER your head and torso to prevent being hit by falling objects.
•HOLD ON to the object that you are under so that you remain covered and face away from the windows. Be prepared to move with the object until the shaking has finished.
•If you can’t get under something strong, or if you are in a hallway, crouch against an interior wall and protect your head and neck with your arms.
After the shaking stops
•Count to 60 to allow debris to finish falling after the shaking stops.
•Assess your immediate surroundings for dangers.
•Proceed with evacuating the building.
•Upon exiting the building, proceed directly to the designated assembly area.
•Proceed to the designated Area of Refuge if you have difficulty negotiating the stairs or if you need assistance in evacuating.
•If an aftershock occurs during evacuation and you are still inside the building, repeat DROP, COVER, AND HOLD procedure before resuming evacuation. SD43's school emergency