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Copy of What have I Learnt during this topic?
Transcript of Copy of What have I Learnt during this topic?
E.g copperoxide +Iron ----> ironoxide+copper
Some metals are very unreactive. That means they do not easily take part in chemical reactions. Some metals are very reactive. They easily take part in chemical reactions to make new substances. We measure the
Reactivity of Metals by
watching what happens to
meatals when they are
heated, cooled or mixed with
What have I Learnt
Predicting Chemical Reactions...
Extracting Metals From Their Ore...
Know How Rocks Are Formed...
The Useful Products of Limestone...
Reactivity Order of Metals...
Order of some
Metals are very useful. Ores are naturally occurring rocks that contain metal or metal compounds in sufficient amounts to make it worthwhile extracting them. The method used to extract a given metal from its ore depends upon the reactivity of the metal and so how stable the ore is
Very reactive metals are extracted using electricity, while less reactive metals are extracted by reduction with carbon. Most metals must be extracted from rocks, called ores, in the Earth's crust. Ores contain the metal, or a compound of the metal, in a high enough concentration to make it worth extracting the metal.
The method of extraction of a metal from its ore depends on the metal's position in the reactivity series.
Reactive metals such as aluminum are extracted by electrolysis, while a less-reactive metal such as iron may be extracted by reduction with carbon. Gold, because it is so unreactive, is found as the native metal and not as a compound, so it does not need to be chemically separated. However, chemical reactions may be needed to remove other elements that might contaminate the metal.
metals & Extraction
Rocks are made of grains that fit together. Each grain in the rock is made from a mineral, which is a chemical compound. The grains in a rock can be different colours, shapes and sizes. Some types of rock have interlocking grains that fit tightly together. Granite is a rock with interlocking grains. Other types of rock have rounded grains.
A river carries, or transports, pieces of broken rock and the remains of dead sea creatures as it flows along. When the river reaches a lake or the sea, its load of transported rocks settles to the bottom. We say that the rocks are deposited. The deposited rocks build up in layers, called sediments. This process is called sedimentation.
The heavy rocks then squashes the sediments at the bottom. This is called compaction. water is squeezed out from between the pieces of rock and crystals of different salts form. The crystals form a sort of glue that sticks or cements the pieces of rock together. This process is called cementation.
The inside of the Earth is very hot - hot enough to melt rocks. Molten (liquid) rock forms when rocks melt. The molten rock is called magma. When the magma cools and solidifies, a type of rock called igneous rock forms. Igneous rocks contain randomly arranged interlocking crystals. The size of the crystals depends on how quickly the molten magma solidified. The more slowly the magma cools, the bigger the crystals. Igneous rocks are very hard wearing rock.
If the magma cools quickly, small crystals form in the rock. This can happen if the magma erupts from a volcano. Obsidian and basalt are examples of this type of rock. They are called extrusive igneous rocks because they form from eruptions of magma. Unlike sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks do not contain any fossils. This is because any fossils in the original rock will have melted when the magma formed.
Earth movements can cause rocks to be deeply buried or squeezed. As a result, the rocks are heated and put under great pressure. They do not melt, but the minerals they contain are changed chemically, forming metamorphic rocks. Sometimes, metamorphic rocks are formed when rocks are close to some molten magma, and so get heated up. When a metamorphic rock is formed under pressure, its crystals become arranged in layers. Slate is a Metamorphic rock useful for making roof tiles because its layers can be split into separate flat sheets. Metamorphic rocks can be formed from any other type of rock sedimentary or igneous, therefor they sometimes contain fossils.
The Rock Cycle
presses the layers and creates
Rocks underground that get
and put under pressure are changed into
Rocks underground that get
they melt turn into magma.
forces magma out of the ground creating a volcano. When the magma cools it turns into solid rock, called
Magma that cools underground forms solid rock called
Areas of rock can move slowly upwards, pushed up by pressure of the rocks forming underneath. This is called
breaks down rocks on the surface of the Earth. There are three types of weathering -
physical, chemical and biological.
Wind and water move the broken rock particles away. This is called
Rivers and streams
rock particles to other places.
Rock particles are deposited in lakes and seas, where they build up to form layers. This starts the process of s
which will create