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DP Biology - Classification

Outlines the major groups of organisms, helps students understand their evolution and classify them according to their mode of nutrition and structural make-up. Review of KPCOFGS and dichotomous keys

S. Klinzing

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of DP Biology - Classification

Classification All living organisms 1. Does the organism have cells with a definite nucleus? YES NO 2. Is the organism made up of many different cells? YES YES YES NO NO NO 3. Is the organism a heterotroph? 4. Does the organism have cell walls
and does it feed by external digestion? It is a fungus It is an animal It is a protoctistan It is a plant It is a bacterium 5 Kingdom Scheme
- Whittaker, 1969 Bacteria
Animals Research in the 21st century does not support the classification of the eukaryotes into any of the standard systems. As of April 2010[update], the situation appears to be that there is no set of kingdoms sufficiently supported by current research to gain widespread acceptance; as Roger & Simpson say: "with the current pace of change in our understanding of the eukaryote tree of life, we should proceed with caution."
[Roger, A.J. & Simpson, A.G.B. (2009), "Evolution: Revisiting the Root of the Eukaryote Tree", Current Biology 19 (4): R165–7, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032, PMID 19243692 3 Domains - Woese, 1990 Archaebacteria


Eukarya (Plants, Animals, Protista) 6 Kingdom Scheme
- Cavalier-Smith 2004 Archaea
Animalia How they evolved heterotrophic:
"other feeding"
depends on
other sources
for food autotrophic:
can produce
own food. saprophitic heterotrophs Panthera leo Binomial nomenclature
-first proposed by Swedish Biologist Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 Genus descriptor Species: 2 names Otaria flavescens Sometimes closely related species like tigers and lions
can mate in captivity and produce living offspring, however
these are not fertile, hence they remain separate species. dichotomous key Short Activity:
Search for the species name of two animals with similar common names (i.e. housefly and fireflies, starfish and angel fish) - learn the meaning behind each scientific name and how they are classified in terms of KPCOGS.
Why do you think it's clearer for scientists to use scientific names rather than common names?
Why is Latin used for the binomial system? Panthera leo sea lions 4 Main Phyla of PLANTS:
Mosses (Bryophyta)
Ferns (Filicinophyta)
Conifers (Coniferophyta)
Flowering Plants (Angiospermophyta) BRYOPHYTA
All are land plants, yet poorly adapted to terrestrial conditions.
Tiny Stem and radially arranged leaves, but no true roots, only ____
Leaves have no cuticle
Spore capsule with spore dispersing valve mechanism
Liverworts: flat leaf-like structure on soil surface. FILICINOPHYTA
Ferns have true stems, leaves and roots and well-adapted to terrestrial conditions.
Contain true vascular tissues
Leaves have waxy cuticle
spore-producing structures (sporangia) undersurface of leaves
spores germinate to produce haploid gametangia
survivors of ancient group, dominant within the Carboniferous period 355 mya. CONFEROPHYTA
Cone-bearing trees with strong trunks
Main trunk grows, and side branches are in whorls
Leaves are waxy and needle-shaped
Seed-bearing, but naked in cones
Survival on poor soils due to modified roots and soil fungi
Economically important as "soft woods" ANGIOSPERMOPHYTA
Dominant group of land plants
Flowers form seeds and fruits
Complex mechanisms of pollen and seed dispersal involving pollinators, wind and water
Divided into monocots (parallel veins, single seed leaf) and dicots (net-veined, two seed leaves). 6 INVERTEBRATE PHYLA of ANIMALS:
Porifera - sponges
Cnidaria - jellies, anemones, coral
Platyhelminthes - flatworms
Annelida - segmented worms
Mollusca - slugs, snails, mussels, cephalopods
Arthropoda - crustaceans, arachnids, insects, centipedes and millipedes PORIFERA
the simplest multicellular animals
all aquatic, mostly marine
formed into simple sac-like structures of cells in two layers
lack nervous system
feeds on suspended particles
reproduce asexually by buddings CNIDARIA
came from the greek word "cnidos", which means stinging nettle
radially symmetric and
all aquatic, mostly marine
sessile or mobile
formed into a sessile hydroid or a motile medusa with outer ectoderm, inner endoderm and a mesoglea or jelly layer
other form is in the form of polyp, which is a sessile form attached to the sea floor (coral, hydras, and anemones)
nervous system is a net
most feed on prey and use their stinging cells to poison, or paralyze them. Some harbor symbiotic algae (coral).
contain cnidocytes, a specialized cell located in the epidermis (contain organelles called cnidea, which comes in different forms called nematocysts, spirocysts, and ptychocysts) PLATYHELMINTHES
flat, unsegmented animals
many are parasitic: spend juvenile stages in intermediate hosts before settling in definitive hosts
bilateral symmetry with 3 layers of cells: ecto, meso, endoderm
why are they flat? respiration occurs through diffusion; cells must all be exposed to surroundings
nervous system is ladder like
feeds by scavenging or preying on other small animals
have both male and female reproductive organs
do not have an anus or digestive tract
food enters mouth, enters "gut" cavity, is dispersed throughout body, waste generated during respiration leaves via mouth MOLLUSCA
soft-bodied mostly aquatic animals
no segmentation: head, body, foot - sometimes covered by a shell
most use a rasping, tongue-like radula for feeding
undergo sexual reproduction between opposite sexes ARTHROPODA
most numerically successful and diverse: 5 distinct groups.

segmented bodies, covered by a hard, external skeleton made of chitin.
some Segments form specialized body regions (tagmata) are head, thorax and abdomen.
jointed legs most distinct feature, number varies

Arthropods generally grow in a process called ecdysis (molting)
Most have open body cavities called "hemocoel"s.

distinct concentration of nerves in the head (brain = cerebral ganglion), similar to annelids.
diverse sexual reproduction schemes but most are dioecious and lay eggs. So what is a species?
A species is a group of organisms of common ancestry that closely resemble each other structurally and biochemically, and which are members of natural populations that are actually or potentially capable of breeding with each other to produce fertile offspring. In the first edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus subdivided the human species into four varieties based on continent and skin color: "Europæus albus" (white European), "Americanus rubescens" (red American), "Asiaticus fuscus" (brown Asian) and "Africanus niger" (black African). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae he further detailed stereotypical characteristics for each variety and changed the description of Asians' skin tone to "luridus" (yellow).[131][132][133][134] Additionally, Linnaeus created a cryptid wastebasket taxon "monstrosus" for "wild and monstrous humans, unknown groups, and more or less abnormal people." By 21st century standards, his descriptions can be regarded as racist. How does the social context of scientific work affect the methods and findings of research? Is it necessary to consider the social context when evaluating ethical aspects of knowledge claims? Sources:
"Introduction to the Platyhelminthes." Introduction to the Platyhelminthes. UCMP Berkely, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/platyhelminthes/platyhelminthes.html>.
http://poster.4teachers.org/imgFilePoster/379778.jpg Porifera - The latin term "porifera" means "bearing pores".
- They are known as sponges and are multicellular
- They belong to three groups
> Calcarea and Demospongia: Calcareous sponges
> Hexactinellida: Glass sponges
- They consist of three layers:
>Pinacocytes - This outer layer that contains of contractile epithelial cells
>Amoebocytes - This inner gelatinous layer secretes skeletal materials, allows reproduction, and carries food particles
>Choanocytes - This inner layer composed of flagellated collar cells, which helps excrete waste, take in food particles and reproductive products
- They have a filtering system by pumping water (Water passes through the ostis which are pores and flows in the canals called a spongocoel, which then leaves through the oscula openings)
- They are able to change function
- They are heterotrophic and supply themselves with food particles found in the water http://01.edu-cdn.com/files/static/mcgrawhill-images/9780071410403/f0180-01.jpg Chitin - a long polymer chain of
N-acetylglucosamine (glucose derivative) Three major classes
-polychaeta -- marine worms
-hirudinea -- leeches
-oligochaeta -- freshwater and terrestrial worms ANNELIDA
segmented worms with a soft body
bilateral symmetry with a true body cavity (coelom)
first group with obvious cephalization
most are scavengers or predators
also hermaphroditic freshwater worm marine worm earthworm there are about 9,000 different species of Annelida no arms, legs, eyes are able to replace or replicate lost segments cold-blooded http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/arthroplegs.jpg http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomology/images/p5large.gif
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