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AS PE The Muscular System

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Mike Tyler

on 15 October 2015

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Transcript of AS PE The Muscular System

The Muscular System
Short Term Responses to Exercise
Fibre Type recruitment
Nature vs Nurture
Fibre Types are genetically determined
Muscle Fibre Types
There a three muscle fibre types in the human body:
Type 1
- Slow Oxidative (or 'slow twitch')
Type 2a
- Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic (or 'fast twitch 2a')
Type 2b
- Fast Glycolytic (or 'fast twitch 2b')
Types of Muscle
involuntary muscle found in the walls of blood vessels

heart muscle forms part of the myocardium

concerned with movement of the skeletal system
Fibre type changes
Skeletal Muscle Structure
produces movement by drawing origin and insertion together

maintains body posture

alters body shape

generates heat

stores glycogen and (some) oxygen
To know the structure and function of the muscular system

To understand the properties of different muscle fibre types

To be able to describe short-term responses and long-term adaptations of the muscular system to exercise

muscle belly
muscle bundle
muscle fibre
Skeletal Muscle:
Ligament and Tendon Strength
Type 2b fibres
to type 2a

This enables a larger proportion of muscle fibres to utilise

Long steady-state training results in
loss of speed

Blood supply
also increases to these fibre types
Endurance Training
High Intensity training (HIT)
Increase in
of fast twitch fibres (hypertrophy)

Increase is
of fast twitch (2b) fibres (hyperplasia)
Resistance training can increase the size and strength of tendons and ligaments (Fahey et al. 1975).

This may be due to an increase of collagen within the connective tissue sheaths (Laurent et al. 1978).
The elastic limit of a tendon or ligament can be enhanced by exercise and training and can be reduced by aging and inactivity.
Men have a greater propensity for muscle growth due to the higher levels of testosterone during adolescence and adulthood.
Long Term Adaptations to Exercise
From the table you are about to see, select 3 adaptations to aerobic training and 3 adaptations to anaerobic training.

For each one write down why these would be beneficial to sports performers
what are the benefits of these adaptations?
what are the benefits of these adaptations?
Large postural muscles are high in
type 1

Muscles of the arm are high in
type 2

Muscles fibre proportion in the legs varies significantly and determines
to certain events (endurance vs sprint)
Differences between individual muscles
Force Production
Low intensity: slow twitch (SO) first recruited

Higher intensity: FOG fibres recruited alongside SO

Near maximal intensity: FG fibres recruited
Muscular Contraction
3 types of contraction
Antagonistic muscle action
Isotonic (Concentric)
Isotonic (Eccentric)
length of muscle does not change
but tension in the muscle increases
particularly important in core stability (e.g. for running)
muscle grows longer in length under contraction
works to limit or stabilise movement (acts as a brake)
e.g. running downhill or downward phase in squat
bigger overload than in concentric contraction
therefore useful in strength training
can be trained using plyometrics
muscle grows shorter in length under contraction
produces movement in skeletal system
e.g. bicep curl
Antagonistic pairs
The name given to the muscle in the pair which is contracting
The name given to the muscle in the pair which is relaxing
Muscles which aid the prime mover (agonist)
Usually much smaller than the prime mover.

The brachialis, along with the brachioradialis, serves as a synergist to elbow flexion.
Muscles which act as a stabilizer to eliminate the movement of an agonist's, or prime mover's, origin. Many muscles are attached to more than one bone.
When these muscles contract they tend to move both bones to which they are attached.

Have a go at the antagonistic pairs worksheet
make a table of 5 of each of these contractions from different sports
The more muscle fibres recruited, the greater the force produced
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