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Sex-linkage and Pedigrees

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SamJan Olee

on 23 February 2014

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Transcript of Sex-linkage and Pedigrees

Pedigrees Sex Linked
Sex-linkage and Pedigrees
Sex-linked diseases
Pedigree
Pedigree: a record of the ancestry of an individual
Analyzing Pedigrees
Pedigrees are used to determine and analyze inheritance, especially of Family disease.
Sex-linked Diseases
Sex-linked disease
- any disease or abnormality that is determined by the sex hormones. Sex-linked disease can be recessive or dominate.

Sex-linked disease Examples
Example of Sex-linked Diseases
By: Janet O and Samantha Lee
Biology Project
5th hour
When reading a pedigree, you will notice it is made up of simple symbols and therefore can be read universally.

a. You will notice that squares can be used to represent males, and circles used for females. A diamond may be used to represent no gender.
b. A filled in shape shows that the person is affected by the disease.
c. Pedigrees show the generations in roman numerals, and also shows the order of birth within siblings
d. Relations in a pedigree are showed by lines
e. Dots may be used to show carriers of a disease
f. Slashes show who is deceased


End
This video is about color blindness. As you watch this video, try to ask yourself these questions:

*What is color blindness

*How do you get it?

*Who do you get it from?

Create a Pedigree Competition
you will pick a piece of paper with a character on it.
there will be a name, age, gender, and disease/no disease
On the top left corner, there will also be a letter: a, b, or c
get in your group: a, b, or c
you and your group will recieve a blank pedigree and will have to fill it out using the information. Add genotype, mark and color where appropriate, you must correctly order your pedigree.
Y-linked
The picture shows
-The first generation the father was affected by the
disease.
-The second generation show the females are carriers
-The third generation shows the son was affected by his carrier mother since she gave him a 'bad' X.
-Now in the fourth generation we see the son is affected because his mom had a 50/50 chance of giving him a "bad' x.

Did you know?
-1/12 males and 1/20 women are
color blind.
-The most common type of color
blindness is red-green
color-blindness, where red and
green are seen as the same color.

Hemophilia
- congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son


Muscle Dystrophy
- is a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system.Muscular dystrophies are shown by increasing skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.


Color Blindness
- genetic inability to distinguish differences in color(s)
-Hint- It would not make sense to give a Y-linked disease to a girl, nor will it be likely for a girl to get a x-linked disease.
*When finished raise your hands
and have your pedigree checked*

Inheritance
: Something inherited

Genotype
: Set of Alleles that determines traits and characteristics (Phenotype)

Phenotype
: Traits or characteristic resulting from environment or genotype.
X-Linked Disease- Affects the x chromosome. Typically only males get x-linked diseases, since if given by mother males don't have a counter measure. Females can get x-linked diseases if the mother and father have the disease.

Y-Linked Disease- Affects males y chromosome.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/pedigree-analysis-in-human-genetics-tutorial.html#lesson
Pedigree Sex Linked
Y-linked Pedigree
Y linked pedigrees affect only males

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Quick review
*Sex linked diseases affect sex chromosomes.
*X-linked diseases are shown in males, because their mother was a carrier. Females are protected by a healthy father and do not get x-linked diseases.
*Carriers only have 1 affected chromosome and can pass it to their offspring.
*Pedigrees can be read universally
*Pedigrees shows phenotypes within families
*Autosomal diseases are not sex related and can affect male and females equally
*Recessive is often hidden unless the recessive gene in homogeneous (rr)
*Dominate masks recessive genes and can be heterogeneous (Rr) and still show.




Below are our sources

Wikipedia
cdc.gov
education portal

Autosomal
Recessive:
Masked/Hidden by Dominate
trait.
Dominate
: Masks recessive trait.
Can affect either gender equally.

Hemophilia
Muscle Dystrophy
Color Blindness
Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder arising from a genetic defect of the X chromosome; the defect can either be inherited or result from spontaneous gene mutation. In each type of hemophilia (hemophilias A, B, and C), a critical coagulation protein is missing, causing individuals to bleed for long periods of time before clotting occurs.
*Hemophilia generally affects males, however a carrier female and male can pass on the right combination for a hemophiliac female child
*Hemophilia include:
-Brusing easily
-
-
-
X-Linked
Two types of linked diseases, differences, and who they affect.
What you'll need to know
A sex linked
Full transcript