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Big Bang Theory and the Birth of the Solar System

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Emma Frye

on 19 May 2016

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Transcript of Big Bang Theory and the Birth of the Solar System

Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory is the most popular theory of our universe's origin.

This theory was created at the observation of other galaxies moving away, in all directions, from our own at a great speed, as if they had been set in motion by an explosive force.
Before the big bang, the entire universe, including all of it's matter, was compressed into a hot, dense point, called a singularity.

This hot, dense singularity expanded like a balloon (it did not actually explode), and eventually created all the elements that make up the universe today.

As the point keeps expanding, it cools and contracts, forming the stars and galaxies.


Evidence
Edwin Hubble discovered that almost all of the galaxies in the universe are traveling away from each other, and from our galaxy, at incredibly high speeds according to Mike Evans, eHow contributor. He knew this because the galaxies in the sky are "red-shifted." This means that the light emitted from them is distorted by the fact that they are moving so quickly away from us.
Big Bang Theory and the Birth of the Solar System
More Evidence
The Big Bang was first proposed in the 1920s
It is responsible for the creation of hydrogen, helium and lithium
Prior to the big bang, space did not exist
The singularity didn't exist in space but rather, space in it
Astronomers could actually observe the afterglow of the "explosion" in every direction of the universe.
Ground-based and space telescopes confirm that other galaxies are moving away from our galaxy at high speeds.
Age
The universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years old, but the solar system is only estimated to be 4.6 billion years old.

These estimates came from measuring the composition of matter and energy density in the universe.
Birth of the Solar System
Around 4.6 billion years ago, our solar system was simply a cloud of dust and gas much larger than our present solar system. It was disrupted by a supernova (explosion of a nearby star), which initiated a compression of the dust particles and gasses. This compression is known as a gravitational collapse.

The gravitational pull of this mass began to pull the surrounding particles in, increasing its mass. As it's mass increased, it also increased in speed, and flattened into a giant, spinning disk.

Eventually, the temperature created enough energy to trigger nuclear fusion, resulting in the birth of our sun.
Singularities are zones
of infinite destiny.
3 Minutes After the Big Bang
The universe has grown from the size of an atom to larger than the size of a grapefruit, but is still too hot to form into atoms.

Energy forms matter into clumps that we call protons, neutrons and electrons, later forming into atoms.

Charged electrons and protons prevent light from shining.

The universe is a super, hot fog.
The universe's temperature cools down to the temperature of the current universe, allowing energy to be converted into subatomic particles.

Atoms form (specifically hydrogen and some helium).

According to docstoc.com, the early universe was about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium; it is still around the same today.

Light can finally shine.
200 to 400 Thousand Years After the Big Bang
Gravity makes hydrogen and helium gas come together to form the giant clouds that become galaxies. Smaller clumps of gas collapse to form the first stars.
Quasars are extremely bright masses of energy and light. They are the furthest objects away from our galaxy that can be seen and are found nowhere else and nothing exists past them.
Scientists obverse stars millions/billions light years away. The furthest stars are 10-15 billion years away. They have telescopes that can see farther but nothing is viewable. This this suggests that the entire universe must have been located in a single point at one point.
A light year is the distance light travels in one year.
A galaxy 13.3 billion light years away. It is much smaller than our own Milky Way galaxy.
Fun Facts
Supporters
George Henri Lemaitre, the "Father of the Big Bang," first suggested that the universe was created from a singularity but had no evidence.
Edwin Hubble studied the light given off by galaxies, later proposing Hubble's Law.
Hubble's Law states that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it travels from us.


One Billion Years After the Big Bang
13 Billion Years After the Big Bang
As galaxies cluster together under gravity, the first stars die and spew radioactive elements, like cobalt, titanium, aluminum along with hydrogen and helium and lithium, into space, which will eventually form into new stars and the planets.
The solar system is the collection of eight planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
The lighter gas was swept far out into the solar system, leaving heavier rocky material near the sun.

Molten metal and dust particles stuck together to form clusters, which stuck together to form rocks. Gravity caused the rocks to come together, eventually forming planets, through the process known as accretion.

In the hot part of the solar system, rocky planets with hard, hot cores were formed; Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

In the colder, outer region, away from the sun, water vapor condensed and froze. The ice combined with the amounts of gas blown away from the sun through gravity, created the planets known as gas giants; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
In the Solar System
Not only is our solar system made up of the sun with the commonly known 8 planets, but there are over 100 other worlds.

Some, such as Io, have active volcanoes. Others, like Europa has liquid water oceans, while Titan has lakes, rivers and oceans of Methane.

Galaxies are groups of star, dust and gases held together by gravity.
The Milky Way galaxy has four spiral arms. Two major and two minor.

The spiral arms contain high amounts of dust and gas. New stars are constantly formed within the arms.

Our solar system is located in the Orion arm of the Milky Way galaxy. The Orion arm is located between two major arms, Perseus and Sagittarius.

The Milky Way is constantly rotating, along with the solar system. The solar system travels at an average speed of 515,000 miles per hour. Even at this speed, it would take about 230 million years to travel all the way around the Milky Way.
Evidence
Impact craters found on almost all the bodies in the solar system, which tells us that the formation was violent
4.5 billion years ago
Early on, the four outermost planets follow circular orbits, packed closely together within a large disk of icy debris, leftovers from planet formation.

3.9 billion years ago
As the planets spread out, the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn fall into lockstep. Ultimately, the changed orbits of these two giants greatly alter the orbits of Neptune and Uranus.

3.9 billion – 3.8 billion years ago
Uranus and Neptune ram into the icy reservoir. The debris zooms into the inner solar system, where it catastrophically collides with the moon, Earth and the other planets.

3.65 billion years ago
The outer solar system settles into its current configuration. The impacts left behind on the moon are now providing clues to the history of the solar system.

Timeline of the Formation of the Solar System (according to Ron Cowen)
Encounter Theory
A rogue star passes close to the Sun about 5 billion years ago. Material, in the form of hot gas, is stripped from the sun and the star. The material fragments into smaller lumps, forming the planets.
This hypothesis explains why the planets all revolve in the same direction and why the inner worlds are denser than the outer worlds.
Nebular Theory
Protoplanet Theory
Most popular
Incorporates many ideas of the Nebular Theory
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast121/lectures/lec24.html
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_system.htm
http://www.space.com/19915-milky-way-galaxy.html
http://www.fddb.org/shows/the-birth-of-the-solar-system/
http://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/the-solar-systems-big-bang/
http://www.nationalstemcentre.org.uk/elibrary/resource/1922/birth-of-the-solar-system
http://www.space.com/18502-farthest-galaxy-discovery-hubble-photos.html
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/134948362/The-Big-Bang-Theory
http://www.ehow.com/info_8190509_science-projects-big-bang-theory.html
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5479787_big-bang-theory-kids.html
http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~yukimoon/BigBang/
http://www.space.com/52-the-expanding-universe-from-the-big-bang-to-today.html
http://www.unc.edu/~hmackenz/physicswebproject_files/page0001.htm
http://www.big-bang-theory.com/
http://csivc.csi.cuny.edu/supernova7/files/robbins/AST160/XRaySNR_sm.pdf
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/quasar.htm
Works Cited
http://files.mundos-fantasticos.com/200000958-1c8181c97c/normal_384_FormingSolarSystem.jpg
http://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/images_blogs/wiredscience/2012/12/Our-Solar-System-Montage1.jpg
http://intergalactic-hq.com/SolarFlare.jpg
http://www.scienceimage.csiro.au/mediarelease/images/expanding_universe_nasa_th.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Universe_expansion2.png
http://www.creationtoday.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Part-7B2.png
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/10/23/article-0-18EE9CD300000578-973_634x575.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:M101_hires_STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg
https://dlnmh9ip6v2uc.cloudfront.net/assets/0/4/e/8/2/519fa09dce395f8b08000000.png
Pictures Works Cited
Johnannes Kelper discovered three laws that help explain how everything orbits around the sun.

These laws are known as Kelper's 3 Laws of Planetary Motion.
1) The planets orbit the sun in an elliptical pattern rather than in a circle.

2) Each planet travels more rapidly when closer to the sun and more slowly away from the sun.

3) The time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is proportional to the distance to the sun.
Fun Facts
The sun is not stationary within the solar system.

The gravitational pull from the other planets causes the sun to orbit around the solar system's barycenter.

The barycenter is the point between two objects where they balance each other. However, the point is not exactly in the center of the two objects, but the point lies outside the center of the bigger object.
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