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Robert J Martin

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of GREECE

“Wonders are many on earth, and none is more wonderful
than man…There is nothing Beyond his power…Clever
beyond all dreams the inventive craft that he hath.”

From approximately 800 - 500 BCE, the Greeks developed “Democracy” and philosophy, created great works of Theatre, Sculpture, and Architecture that serve as the
• The Greeks believed in a Pantheon of Gods

• Zeus ruled over the gods who the Greeks conceived in human terms

• The Gods were unpredictable, but could be wooed with prayers and sacrifice.

• The Gods were fickle and were likely to take offense and held grudges against each other and humans

• Like Humans the Gods were susceptible to FATE, a concept that haunted Greek thought.

• The tension between rationality and unpredictability characterized the Greek World view

• Peace depended on finding the balance between the human and the divine, but this was a delicate balance that could be shattered at any moment.
The Greek World View
The Role of Women
• With the exception of Sparta, Greek women had very little freedom outside of their home and, with the exception of Sparta, women received little formal education.
• Other than attending weddings, religious celebrations, funerals and brief visits with nearby family or female neighbors, women were confined to the indoors.
• The role of women was to run the household and bear children.
• In the better off homes, Greek women did very little actual work. Female slaves cooked, cleaned and worked the fields while male slaves acted as tutors and watched the door to make sure only females entered the house while the man was away.
• Duties included the raising of children, spinning, weaving and overseeing the construction of clothes.
Greek women weaving
Attic black-figure jug
500 BCE
Greek women folding laundry
Domestic scene: Presence of columns suggests that women spent much of their time in the courtyard of their homes where they could enjoy fresh air. Greek cooking equipment was light and small and could be set up anywhere. In sunny weather they probably sat in the roofed over areas as the ideal for female beauty was a pale complexion.
Beam or Lintel
Small Structure where Columns are moved to the Outside.
What does that do to the space?.
“I never spend my time indoors. My wife is well able to run the household by herself. I prefer to Agora, the Assembly, the courts, and the gymnasium.”
The average male Athenian cared little for his home. He spent little money beautifying it. Unless he was sick or otherwise indisposed, he probably went home only to eat and sleep. Even the wealthy had simple homes.
What are the similarities and differences between this and the Egyptian Layout?
Wealth families sometimes have two courtyards – one for women and one for men .
When guests arrived women disappeared to their quarters.

Off the courtyard was the
(place for symposiums) and was the most elaborate room in the house. Male quests were allowed no further into the house because this is where the women's quarters.

The master bedroom, the
, would be located either in the woman’s quarters on the second floor, if the home was two storied. The Thalamos contained the most treasured possessions and best furniture.
Build around an open courtyard

Temple of Zeus
The Parthenon:
Dedicated to the Goddess Athena
Atop the Highest Point on the Acropolis
Perfect visual balance and harmony

**Note the application of visual “tricks”**
Doric Order
Ionic Order
Corinthian Order
Patterns/Profiles developed here remain the standard today.
Typical Pattern/Motif: Key
The shape of each vase was determined by its use, then decorated in order to make it more pleasing.

The applied detail included painted scenes, as well as geometric graphic patterns.
Greek Orders of Architecture
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