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surviving psychology

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jenna nosek

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of surviving psychology

Chapter 4: Developing Through the Life Span
Habituation - decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Cross-Sectional Study - study in which people of different ages are compared
Cognition - all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication
Developmental Psychology - studies the physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a life span
Longitudinal Study - research in which the same people are restudied and retested over long periods
Crystallized Intelligence - one's accelerated knowledge and verbal skills that tend to increase with age
Fluid Intelligence - one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly
Schema - a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Social Clock - culturally preferred timing of social events
Secondary Sex Characteristics - nonreproductive sexual characteristics
Adolescence - transition from childhood to adulthood
Puberty - period of sexual maturation during which reproducing is capable
Primary Sex Characteristics - body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
Critical Period - optimal period shortly after birth when certain exposures must happen in order for development to occur
Teratogens - agents that can harm the organism during prenatal development
Maturation - biological process that enables orderly changes in behavior
Assimilation - interpreting one's new experience in terms of existing schemas
Accommodation - adapting one's current schemas to incorporate new information
Conservation - principle that properties remain the same despite the changes in form of objects
Egocentrism - difficulty taking another's point of view
Theory of Mind - people's ideas about their own and other's mental states-about feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors these might predict
Prologue: The Story of Psychology
Psychology - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Empiricism - the view that knowledge comes from experience; science comes from observation and experiment
Functionalism - how mental and behavioral processes function
Structuralism - used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Nature-Nurture Issue - controversy over the relative contributions of biology make to the aspects gained from the environment
Humanistic Psychology - emphasized growth potential of healthy people; studies over personality and personality growth
Biopsychosocial Approach - integrated perspective that involves biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
Counseling Psychology - assists people with problems in living and achieving greater health
Clinical Psychology - studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry - branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Critical Thinking - no blind acceptance; challenges thought through examination
Independent Variable - factor manipulated in the study to see its effect
Case Study - the deep study of an individual to reveal universal truths
Population - all the cases in a group study from which samples can be drawn
Survey - self-reported attitudes or behaviors found through questioning
Double-blind Procedure - both participants and the staff are ignorant about whether the patient received the drug or placebo
Correlation - measure of two factors and how they relate and predict each other
Operational Definition - statement of procedures used to define a research variable
Placebo Effect - experimental results caused by expectations alone
Hypothesis - testable prediction made based on a theory
Hindsight Bias - "I knew it all along" tendency
Culture - behaviors, traditions, ideas, and attitudes shared through generations
Illusory Correlation - perception of a relationship where none exist
Dependent Variable - the factor that can change because of the manipulated variable
Experiment - research method in which a factor is manipulated to observe the effect on behavior
Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior
Neuron - nerve cell
Interneuron - CNS internally communicates and intervenes through sensory input and motor outputs
Threshold - level of stimulation required for a neural impulse
Aphasia - impairment of language
Plasticity - brain's capacity for modification after damage
Wernicke's Area - controls language reception, comprehension, and expression
Adrenal Glands - pair of endocrine glands above the kidneys
Split Brain - two hemispheres of the brain are cut along the corpus callosum
Neurotransmitters - chemical messengers sent between the synaptic gap and dendrites
Acetylcholine - neurotransmitter that enables learning, memory, and muscle contraction
Endorphins - linked to pain control and pleasure
Broca's Area - controls language expression, directs muscle movements involved in speech
Hormones - chemical messengers made by endocrine glands
Nervous System - speedy electrical communication network
Sensory Neurons - carry incoming information from sensory receptors to CNS
Motor Neurons - carry outgoing information from CNS to muscles and glands
Pituitary Gland - endocrine's most influential gland
Thalamus - brain's sensory switchboard
Amygdala - neural clusters linked to emotion and limbic system
Brainstem - responsible for automatic survival functions
Limbic System - associated with emotions/drives
Corpus Callosum - connecting neural fibers of the two hemispheres
Cerebellum - "little brain"; processing sensory input and coordinating movement output
Medulla - controls heartbeat and breathing
Cerebral Cortex - ultimate control and information processing center
Frontal Lobes - involved in speaking, muscle movements, making judgements
Sensory Cortex - registers and processes bodily sensations and movement sensations
Motor Cortex - controls voluntary movement
Parietal Lobes - receives sensory input for touch and bodily position
Occipital Lobes - visual area
Temporal Lobes - auditory areas
Chapter 3: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Social Learning Theory - we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Molecular Genetics - subfield of biology that studies molecules and function of genes
Behavior Genecists- study of relative power of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
Evolutionary Psychology - study of evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selection
Gender Identity - one's sense of being male or female
Gender - biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which male and female are defined
Gender Schema Theory - children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and adjust their behavior accordingly
Gender-Typing - acquisition of traditional masculine and feminine roles
Gender Role - set of expected behaviors for males and females
Norm - understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Environment - every nongenetic influence
Role - set of norms about social position defining how to behave
Collectivism - goal's of one's group and defining identity accordingly
Individualism - one's own goals over the group's goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes
X-Chromosome - found in both men and women
Y-Chromosome - found only in men
Temperament - person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Chapter 13: Emotion
Two-Factor Theory - to experience emotion on must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
Canon-Bard Theory - an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion
Emotion - response of whole organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior conscious experience
James-Lange Theory - our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Relative Deprivation - perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Catharsis - emotional release
Subjective Well Being - self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon - people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Adaption Level Phenomenon - tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Chapter 12: Motivation and Work
Flow - completely involved, focused state of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time
Bulimia Nervosa - eating disorder with episodes of overeating followed by vomiting
Sexual Response Cycle - four stages of sexual responding: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Incentive - a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Refractory Period - resting period after orgasm
Drive Reduction Theory - idea that physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Industrial Organizational Psychology - application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplace
Instinct - a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
Anorexia Nervosa - eating disorder in which an average weight person diets and drops a lot of weight but continues to starve oneself because they feel fat
Hierarchy of Needs - begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher level safety needs and psychological needs are active
Sexual Disorder - a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
Motivation - a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Chapter 6: Perception
Perceptual Set - a mental predispositon to perceive one thing and not another
Visual Capture - tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
Selective Attention - focusing of conscious awareness on particular stimulus
Grouping - perceptual tendency to organize into a coherent groups
Parapsychology - study of paranormal phenomena
Inattentional Blindness - failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed else where
Depth Perception - ability to see objects in three dimensions; allows us to judge distance
Binocular Cues - depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes
Gestalt - an organized whole, psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Monocular Cues - depth cues available to either eye alone
Chapter 5: Sensation
Place Theory - links pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory - retina contains three different color receptors most sensitive to red, green, and blue
Difference Threshold - minimum difference between two stimuli; noticeable difference
Frequency Theory - the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of tone enabling us to sense pitch
Opponent-Process Theory - opposing retinal processes enable color vision
Weber's Law - to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
Signal Detection Theory - predicting how and when we detect faint stimuli amid background
Top-Down Processing - info processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations
Bottom-Up Processing - analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to brains integration of sensory information
Kinethesis - system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts
Parallel Processing - processing several aspects of a problem simultaneously
Subliminal - below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Gate Control Theory - spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
Frequency - number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Perception - process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Sensation - sensory receptors and nervous system receive and repeat stimulus energies from our environment
Pitch - tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Audition - sense or act of hearing
Absolute Threshold - minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus
Acuity - sharpness of vision
Vestibular Sense - sense of body movement and position; includes a sense of balance
Optic Nerve - nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain
Chapter 14: Stress and Health
Complementary and Alternative Medicine - unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
Biofeedback - a system of electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle psychologivla state
Emotion-Focused Coping - attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor
Problem-Focused Coping - attempting to alleviate a stress directly by changing our interactions with the stressor
Coping - alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
Psychophysiological Illness - "mind-body" illness
Type A - competitive, hard-working, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B - easy-going, relaxed people
General Adaption Syndrome - concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Stress - process by which we perceive and respond to certain events that we appropriate as threatening and challenging
Health Psychology - subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Behavioral Medicine - an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
Chapter 7: States of Conciousness
Manifest Content - remembered storyline of a dream
Latent Content - underlying meaning of a dream
REM Rebound - tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Stimulants - drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Withdrawal - a discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing use of an addictive drug
Dissociation - a split in consciousness which allow some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Monism - presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
Sleep - periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
Hypnosis - social interaction in which one person suggests to subject that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
REM Sleep - a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams usually occur
Consciousness - our awareness of ourselves and environment
Dream - a sequence, of images, emotions, amd thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
Circadian Rhythm - the biological clock that regulates bodily rhythms
Posthypnotic Suggestion - a suggestion made during hypnosis session and will be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
Psychoactive Drug - a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Depressants - drugs that reduce neural activity and slows body functions
Addiction - compulsive drug craving and use
Dualism - presumption that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
Tolerance - diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug
Hallucinations - false sensory experiences without a stimulus
Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders
Personality Disorders - characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impairs social functioning
Mood Disorders - characterized by emotional extremes
DSM-IV - widely used system for classifying psychological disorder
Psychological Disorder - deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Medical Model - diseases have a physical causes and can be diagnosed and treated; mental illnesses diagnosed by symptoms and cured through therapy
Anxiety Disorders - psychological disorder characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Delusions - false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur
Schizophrenia - group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Dissociative Disorder - disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Chapter 15: Personality
Id - contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
Psychoanalysis - Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
Superego - parts of personality that represent internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations
Personality - an individuals characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Spotlight Effect - overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders
Personality Inventory - a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings of and behaviors
Defense Mechanism - ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Social Cognitive Perspective - views behavior as influenced by interaction between persons and their social context
Ego - largely conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among demands of id, superego, and reality
Positive Psychology - scientific study of optimal human functioning
Oedipus Conflict - boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Personal Control - our sense of controlling the environment rather than feeling helpless
Reciprocal Determinism - interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
Self-Serving Bias - a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Free Association - a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Collective Unconscious - concept of shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
Psychosexual Stages - childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Self-Concept - all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves
Self-Esteem - one's feelings of high or low self worth
Self-Actualization - ultimate psychological need that arises after all other needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
Learned Helplessness - the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Unconditional Positive Regard - according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Trait - a characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel or act
Unconscious - reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
Chapter 8: Learning
Positive Reinforcement - increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimulation when presented after response strengthens the response
Conditioned Stimulus - originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response
Operant Behavior - behavior that operates on environment producing consequences
Shaping - operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guided behavior toward a closer approximation of desired behaviors
Modeling - a process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Law of Effect - Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by a favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Acquisition - initial stage in classical conditioning that is associated with the neutral stimulus that gives way to conditioned response
Behaviorism - view that psychology is an objective science and studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Reinforcer - any event that strengthens the behaviors that follow
Unconditional Response - unlearned, naturally occurring response to unconditioned stimulus
Classical Conditioning - type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Extinction - diminishing of conditioned response
Unconditional Response - stimulus that naturally triggers a response
Conditioned Response - learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Respondent Behavior - behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Negative Reinforcement - increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli
Learning - a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
Associative Learning - learning that involves certain events occur together
Punishment - an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Spontaneous Recovery - reappearance after pauses an extinguished conditioned response
Operant Conditioning - type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Latent Learning - learning that occurs but it is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Observational Learning - learning by observing others
Chapter 17: Therapy
Eclectic Approach - depending on client's problem uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Biomedical Therapy - prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on patient's nervous system
Exposure Therapies - behavioral techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people to things they fear and avoid
Psychotherapy - emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Token Economy - operant procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
Psychoanalysis - patients free association, resistances, dreams and transference and therapist's interpretations of them released repressed feelings allowing the patient to gain self-insight
Cognitive Therapy - therapy that teaches people new adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the idea that thoughts intervene between events and emotion
Psychosurgery - surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
Counterconditioning - behavior therapy procedures that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors based on classical conditioning
Client-Centered Therapy - therapist uses techniques such as active listening with genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients growth
Aversive Conditioning - associated unpleasant state with unwanted behavior
Psychopharmacology - study of effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Family Therapy - therapy that treats family as a system
Systematic Desensitization - associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggered stimuli
Behavior Therapy - therapy that applies learning principles to elimination of unwanted behaviors
Chapter 11: Intelligence
Creativity - the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Emotional Intelligence - ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Savant Syndrome - a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
Down Syndrome - a condition of retardation and associates with a physical disorder caused by an extra chromosome
General Intelligence - underlying specific mental abilities that need to be measured by every task on an intelligence test
Factor Analysis - statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a list
Reliability - extent to which a test yields consistent results
Intelligence Quotient - defined as a ratio of mental age to chronological age
Intelligence Test - method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
Stereotype Threat - a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Standardization - defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of a pretested standardization of a group
Mental Age - a measure of intelligence test performance
Criterion - behavior that a test is designed to predict
Achievement Test - a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Aptitude Test - test designed to predict a person's future performance aptitude is capacity to learn
Validity - extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to do
Intelligence - mental quality consisting of ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use of knowledge to adapt to new situations
Mental Retardation - condition of limited mental ability, indicated by a score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of everyday life
Chapter 10: Thinking and Language
Fixation - inability to see a problem from a new perspective; impediment to problem solving
Framing - way an issue is poised
Belief Bias - tendency for one's already existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning
Cognition - mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication
Insight - a sudden and often novel realization of a solution to a problem
Belief Perseverance- clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Heuristics - a simple thinking strategy that often allows judgements and to solve problems efficiently but is also prone to error
Concept - a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Confirmation Bias - tendency to search for information that confirms one's perceptions
Algorithm - methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular problem
Linguistic Determinism - Whorf's hypothesis that languages determine the way we think
Language - our spoken, written, or signed words and ways that we combined them to communicate meaning
Grammar - system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
Functional Fixedness - tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; impediment to solving the problem
Semantics - set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences; study of meaning
Syntax - rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Chapter 9: Memory
Memory - persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information
Spacing Effect - tendency for distributed study of practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Relearning - a memory measure that assesses amount of time saved when learning material a second time
Chunking - organized items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
Amnesia - loss of memory
Mnemonics - memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Long-Term Memory - relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system
Retroactive Interference - disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
Flashbulb Memory - clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Recall - a measure of memory in which a person must retrieve information learned earlier
Recognition - measure of memory in which a person need only identify items previously learned
Effortful Processing - encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Encoding - processing information into memory system
Storage - retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval - process of getting information out of memory storage
Proactive Interference - disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
Imagery - mental pictures
Short-Term Memory - activated memory that holds a few items briefly before forgetting or storing information
Serial Position Effect - our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information
Chapter 18: Social Psychology
Scapegoat Theory - theory of prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Ingroup Bias - tendency to favor one's own group
Bystander Effect - tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Conflict - a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Group Polarization - enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussions within a group
Conformity - adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with group standard
Deindividuation - loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Outgroup - "them" those perceived as different or apart from one's identity
Social Trap - situation in which conflicting parties , by each rationally pursuing their self-interest become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Attitude - feelings predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events
Social Exchange Theory - theory that our social behavior is an exchange process,aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Altruism - unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Social Loafing - tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Social Facilitation - stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in a the presence of others
Just-World Phenomenon - tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Groupthink - mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Social Psychology - scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another
Ingroup - "us" people with whom one shares a common identity
Attribution Theory - suggests how we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency for observers to underestimate impact of situation or overestimate impact of personal disposition
Cognitive Dissonance Theory - theory that we reduce discomfort when we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon - tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger requests
Psychology Survival Kit
Vocab
Quick Hits
Tricky Spots
Systems in the Body
Nervous System - speedy electrochemical communication network
controls the body
Somatic Nervous System - division of the Peripheral Nervous System
moves the skeleton and voluntary control
Autonomic Nervous System - Peripheral Nervous System controls glands and muscles of internal actions
like the automatic pilot of the body
Central Nervous System - the brain and spinal cord
central control or headquarters of the body
Peripheral Nervous System - sensory and motor neurons connect Central Nervous System to the rest of the body
the operating agents of headquarters
Parasympathetic Nervous System - calms and relaxes the body to conserve energy
when in a conflicting situation, it is Ron Stoppable of the pair
Sympathetic Nervous System - division between the Autonomic Nervous System arouses body mobilizing energy in stressful situations
when in a conflicting situation, it is the Kim Possible of the pair
Major Sections of the Brain
Frontal Lobe - involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans and judgements
Parietal Lobe - receives sensory input for touch and body position
Temporal Lobe - auditory areas
Occipital Lobe - visual area
Cerebral Cortex - ultimate control and info processing center
Motor Cortex - controls voluntary movement
Sensory Cortex - registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Networking
Neurons - nerve cell
Sensory Neurons - carry incoming information from sensory receptors to Central Nervous System
Motor Neurons - carry outgoing information from the Central Nervous System to muscles and glands
Interneurons - Central Nervous System internally communicates and intervenes with sensory inputs and motor outputs
Dendrite - branch extending from the neuron
Axon - extensions of neurons; terminal fibers at end to send signals
Synapse - junction between sending and receiving neuron
Myelin Sheath - fatty tissue encasing fibers of neurons and allows for speedier communication
Brain Structure
Brainstem - responsible for automatic survival functions
automatic like smiling or laughing at a joke
Medulla - controls the heartbeat and breathing
takes care of the thud of hearts and the sighs we give when getting homework
Reticular Formation - nerve network plays an important role in controlling arousal
What makes you wake up and go to sleep
Cerebellum - processes sensory input, coordinating movement output, balance, nonverbal learning, and memory
reasons why I am not a gymnast and can't play sports involving equipment
Corpus Callosum - connects the hemispheres
bridge that connects Narnia to England
Limbic System - associated with emotions and drives
what makes teenage girls cry for no reason and what makes teenage guys someone your father will never trust
Pituitary Gland - endocrine's most influential gland and is influenced by hypothalamus
controls growth
Hypothalamus - directs maintenance activities and governs pituitary gland
the director a play or movie
Thalamus - brain's sensory switchboard
like the old phone operator boards
Amygdala - neural clusters linked to emotion and limbic system
influence fear and aggression
X-Chromosome - found in both men and women
XX = girl
Y-Chromosome - found only in males
XY = boy
Individualism - one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
more me than we
Collectivism - goal's of one's group and defining an identity accordingly
more we than me
Gender Role - set of expected behaviors for males and females
how we act depending on our gender
Gender-Typing - acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role
boys show more interests in sports and others in art
Gender - biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which male and female are defined
women = gentle
men = strong
Gender Identity - one's sense of being male and female
gays are unsure of sexual identity

Role - set of norms about social position defining how those position behave
Norm - understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Gender Schema Theory - children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and adjusting behavior accordingly
Social Learning Theory - we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Evolutionary Psychology - study of the evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selection
Zygote - fertilized egg
Embryo - developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Fetus - developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens - harmful agents that can hurt the fetus or embryo
Birth to Nearly 2 Years
Object Permanence - awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Rooting Reflex - baby's tendency when touched on the cheek to turn with an open mouth in search of a nipple
Habituation - decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Assimilation - interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
calling all four-legged animals "doggies"
Accomodation - adapting one's current schemas to incorporate new info
learning what is a dog
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor - experiencing the world through senses and actions
birth to nearly 2 years of age
object permanence
stranger anxiety
Preoperational - representing things with words and images; uses intuitive rather than logical reasoning
2 to about 6 or 7 years of age
pretend play
egocentrism
language development
Concrete Operational - thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
about 7 to 11 years old
conservation
mathematical transformations
Formal Operational - abstract reasoning
about 12 through adulthood
abstract logic
potential for mature moral reasoning
Erikson's Stages of Psychological Development
Infancy
Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddlerhood
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Preschooler
Initiative vs. Guilt
Elementary School
Competence vs. Inferiority
Adolescence
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Young Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late Adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair
Fluid Intelligence - one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly
decreases in adulthood because it's thinking on the fly
Crystallized Intelligence - one's accelerated knowledge and verbal skills tend to increase with age
knowledge that stays with you for life
Eye Structure
Optic Nerve - nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain
Lens - transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to help focus on the retina
Retina - light sensitive inner surface of the eye
Pupil - adjustable opening in center of eye through which light enters
Blind Spot - point at which optic nerve leaves eye creating a "blind" spot because there are no receptors there
Iris - ring of muscle tissues that controls pupil size and opening
Fovea - central focal point in retina around wihc eye's cones cluster
Cones - retinal receptors cells concentrated near center of retina and help focus on fine detail, color sensations, and work well in light
Rods - retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray necessary for peripheral vision and night vision
Bottom-Up Processing - analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to brain's integration of sensory information
starts with sensing it or the BOTTOM and then travels UP to the brain
Top-Down Processing - info processing guided by higher level mental process as we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations
starts in the TOP of the head then moves DOWN to the body
Absolute Threshold - minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
candle flame 30 miles away
Difference Threshold - minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
noticeable difference between two objects
Weber's Law - to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
must have a ratio of difference between two stimuli
Subliminal - below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
the stimuli is below our awareness or detection meaning we could be completely oblivious to the stimuli
Parallel Processing - processing several aspects of a problem simultaneously
like a computer system and is used especially with vision
Signal Detection Theory - theory predicting how and when we detect faint stimuli amid background and stimulation
no single absolute threshold it all varies on an individual
also depends partly on experience, expectations, motivation, and fatigue
Structure of the Ear
Middle Ear - chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate vibrations of eardrum on cochlea's oval window
Inner Ear - innermost part of the ear containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
Outermost Ear - contains the auditory canal and ear drum which receives the audition
Malfunctions of Eyesight and Hearing
Farsightedness - faraway objects are seen more clearly
Nearsightedness - nearby objects are closer and clearly seen
Conduction Hearing Loss - hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
Sensorineural Hearing Loss - hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or auditory nerves
Hearing Theories
Place Theory - links pitch we hear with place where cochlea's membrane is stimulated
used for high pitches
Frequency Theory - theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up auditory nerve matches frequency of tone, enabling us to sense its pitch
used for lower pitches
Morality
Preconventional Morality - obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
most children have under age 9
I better share this toy with Tommy so Mommy won't get mad
Conventional Morality - involves caring for others and upholding laws and social rules simply because they are laws and rules
usually evident by early adolescences
You should obey the speed limit because it's a law
Postconventional Morality - affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles
achieved through mastering abstract reasoning and formal operational thought
I can't harm these people because it's just not right, I don't care whether the President says to hurt them or not, but I won't
Binocular Cues - depth cues that depend on use of 2 eyes
Convergence - extent to which eyes converge inward when looking at an object
Retinal Disparity - by comparing images from 2 eyes, the brain computes distance greater disparity between 2 images, closer the object
Monocular Cues - depth cues that are available to either eye alone
Relative Size - if two objects are assumed to be similar size than we perceive the one that cast a smaller retinal image farther away
Interposition - if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
Relative Clarity - we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects
Texture Gradient - gradual change from coarse, indistinct texture signals increasing distance
Relative Height - we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away
Relative Motion - as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move
Linear Perspective - parallel lines appear to converge with distance
Light and Shadow - nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes

Sleep Disorders
Insomia - reoccurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Night Terrors - a sleep disorder; high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares
Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder; uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep Apnea - temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Drugs
Tolerance - diminishing effect with regular use of same dose of drug, requiring user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing drugs effect
Withdrawal - a discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing use of addictive drug
Addiction - compulsive drug craving and use
Physical Dependence - a physiological need for a drug mared by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when a drug is used
Psychological Dependence - a psychological need of use of a drug, such to relieve negative symptoms
Dualism - presumption that the mind and body are to distinct entities that interact
Mind is one and Body is one but together they equal me
Monism - presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
Mind and Body are part of being
Amphetamines - drug stimulate neural activity causing speed-up body functions and associates energy and mood changes
caffeine and nicotine
Hallucinogens - psychdelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory image in absecne of sensory input
"mind-manifesting"
Methamphetamine - a drug that stimulates central nervous system, with speeded-up body function and associates energy and mood changes
highly addictive
Opiates - opium and derivatives depress neural activity temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
morphine and heroin
Depressants - drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
Psychoactive Drug - a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
legal-drugs that keep mood in check
Stimulants - drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
cocaine, ectasy, steroids
Barbiturates - drugs that depress activity of central nervous system, reducing anxiety by impairing memory and judgement
tranquilizers
Dreams - a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
Manifest Content - remembered storyline of a dream
Latent Content - underlying meaning of dream; functions as a safety value
Sleep Stages
Awake, Relaxed
Alpha Waves
Stage 1 sleep
Stage 2 sleep
Stage 3 sleep
Stage 4 sleep
Delta Waves
REM sleep
Operant Conditioning - type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Operant Behavior - behavior that operates on environment producing consequences
Respondent Behavior - behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimuli
Law of Effect - Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Modeling - a process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
think cat walk, vogue, batting the eyelashes
Shaping - operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer to the approximated desired behavior
think of a really strict dance instructor making all the moves perfect
Classical Conditioning - type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Unconditional Stimulus - stimulus that unconditionally, naturally or automatically triggers a response
Unconditional Response - unlearned, naturally occurring response to unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus - originally irrelevant stimuli that after association with unconditioned stimuli comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response - learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Reinforcer - operant conditioning, any event that strengthens behavior that follows
Piece of candy after answering the question
Punishment - an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
"Bad dog" after chewing up my favorite shoes
Primary Reinforcer - innately reinforcing stimulus
something that satisfies the biological needs=food
Conditioned Reinforcer - stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer
also known as secondary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement - reinforcing desired response every time it occurs
good job every time the dog sits when commanded to
Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement - reinforcing a response only part of the time
giving a complement to someone when they look nice
Positive Reinforcement - increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli to strengthen a response
giving a kid a gold star for doing a good deed
Negative Reinforcement - increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli
this is not punishment
Variable-Interval Schedule - reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
getting told "nice job" by a stranger
Variable-Ratio Schedule - reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
eating breakfast on busy mornings
Fixed-Interval Schedule - a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
you can only get a snack every other hour if you get paid
Fixed-Ratio Schedule - operant conditioning reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after specified number of responses
people paid after working for a week
Ways to Remember Information
Imagery - mental pictures
Spacing Effect - tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through craming
Serial Positioning Effect - tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Chuncking - organizing items into familiar manageable units
Mnemonics - memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Types of Memories
Short-Term Memory - activated memory that holds a few items briefly before forgeting or storing info
Long-Term Memory - relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system
Flashbulb Memory - clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Echoic Memory - momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Iconic Memory - momentary sensory memory visual stimuli
Explicit Memory - memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Implicit Memory - retention independent of conscious recollection
Working Memory - conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info and info retrieved from long-term memory
Sensory Memory - immediate very brief recording of sensory information in memory system
Mood Congruent Memory - tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference - disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
old stuff that you've learned makes it difficult to recall new information
watching Hercules and then learning new information could conflict because you keep wanting to reference the Disney version
Retroactive Interference - disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information
learning new vocab for a foreign language makes it harder to remember the old words
Retrieval - process of getting information out of memory storage
Recall - a measure of memory in which person must retrieve info learned earlier
Recognition - measure of memory in which a person need only to identify items previously learned
Relearning - memory measure that assesses amount of time saved when learning materials for a second time
Memory Process
Encoding - processing information into system
Storage - retention of encoded info over time
Retrieval - process of getting information out of memory storage
Encoding - processing information into system
Acoustic Encoding - encoding of sound especially sound of words
Visual Encoding - encoding of picture images
Semantic Encoding - encoding of meaning including meaning of words
Effortful Processing - encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
studying for a final
Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information
space, time, meaning of words, random annoying song stuck in your head like: "Call Me Maybe"
Speech Stages
Babbling Stage - beginning at 4 months; stage in which infant utters sounds spontaneously
One-Word Stage - at 1 to 2 years, a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage - starts at age 2, stage during which a child speaks mostly 2-word statements
Telegraphic Stage - early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram using nouns and verbs omitting auxiliary words
Language and Its Stupid Rules
Grammar - system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
structure to language
Semantics - set of rules by which we derive the meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
to learn the usage by understanding the meaning behind it
Syntax - rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
rules used to make sure sentences make sense and don't confuse people
but then again this is English and all our rules contradict
Sounds of Language
Morpheme - smallest unit that carries meaning
Phoneme - smallest distinctive sound unit
Heuristics - a simple thinking strategy that often allows judgement and solve problems efficiently but is also prone to error
contrasts to algorithms
Representativeness Heuristics - judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes
may lead to ignoring other relevant info.... which means stuff that's super obvious
Availability Heuristics - estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
more quickly an event is remembered the more likely to reoccur

Intelligence - mental quality consisting of ability to learn from experience solve problems, and use of knowledge to adapt to new situations
Emotional Intelligence - ability to perceive, understood, manage and use emotions
General Intelligence - specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Savant Syndrome - a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
Factor Analysis - statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test
Creativity - the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Expertise
Imaginative Thinking Skills
Venturesome Personality
Intrinsic Motivation
Environment

Reliability - extent to which a test yields consistent results; as assessed by consistency of scores on 2 halves of a test
how much the test can be trusted
Validity - extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to do
how accurate the test is
Intelligence Test - method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
Intelligence Quotient - defined originally as ration of mental age to chronologically age; average performance for given age is assign a score of 100
Mental Age - a measure of intelligence test performance; correlates chronological age with level of performance
Aptitude Test - test designed to predict a person's future performance aptitude is capacity to learn
Achievement Test - a test designed assess what a person has learned
WAIS - most widely used intelligence test Stanford-Binet - widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Anorexia Nervosa - eating disorder in average weight person diets and drops a lot of weight but continues to starve oneself because they feel fat
Bulimia Nervosa - eating disorder with episode of overeating followed by vomiting
Task Leadership - goal-oriented leadership that sets standards , organizes work and focuses attention on goals
Social Leadership - group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

Testosterone - male sex hormone
Estrogen - sex hormone found mainly in females
I/O Psych
Industrial Organizational Psychology - application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in work place
Organizational Psychology - examines the organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
Personnel Psychology - focuses on employee recruitment selection placement training appraisal and development
Hierarchy of Needs - begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher level of safety needs and psychological needs are active
Theories on Emotion
Canon-Bard - theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and subjective experience of well being
feel emotion as body responds
Two-Factor Theory - theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
must be aroused then say "I'm ______"
James-Lange Theory - theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
physical action matches feeling
Emotion - response of whole organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
Catharsis - emotion release
Relative Deprivation - perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Subjective Well-Being - self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
Adaption Level Phenomenon - tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon - people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Type A - term for competitive, hard-working, driven, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B - term for easy-going, relaxed people

Coping - alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
Problem-focused Coping - attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing stressor or way we interact with that stressor
Emotion-Focused Coping - attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional mold related to one's stress reaction
Id - contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
Ego - largely conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among demands of id, superego, and reality
Superego - parts of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations
Defense Mechanism - ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Reaction Formation - ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
Projection - people disguise their own threatening, unconsciousness reasons for one's actions
Repression - banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Regression - retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage
Displacement - shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
Rationalization - offers self-justifying explanations in place of real more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

Internal Locus of Control - the perception that one's control one's fate
I make myself
External Locus of Control - perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
Destiny

Different Tests
Minnesota Multaphasic Personality Inventory - most widely researched and clinically used of all personality test
Projective Test - personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Empirically Derived Test - a test developed by a testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
Thematic Apperception Test - projective test in which we express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach Inkblot Test - set of 10 inkblots seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the inkblot
Psychosexual Stages - the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oral - pleasure centers on the mouth: sucking, biting, chewing
Anal - pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands of control
Phallic - pleasure zones is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Latency - dormant sexual feelings
Genital - maturation of sexual interests
Who am I? Terms
Personality - an individual's characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Personality Inventory - a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors
Self-Actualization - ultimate psychological need that arises after basic psychological and physiological need are met and self-esteem is achieved
Self-Esteem - one's feelings of high or low self-worth
Self-Concept - all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves
Anxiety Disorders - characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder - person is continually apprehensive and in state of autonomic nervous system arousal
constantly nervous no matter what
PTSD - haunted memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, insomnia that lingers after a traumatic event
generally found in soldiers
Phobia - marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object of situation
arachnophobia is the intense fear of spiders
OCD - characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions
it's CDO, the letters are in the proper order as they should be
Panic Disorder - marked by unpredictable minute-long episodes of intense dread, terror, chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations
What's happening? Oh no! The world is ending!!! (One Minute Later) So did you see the game last night?
Personality Disorders - characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impairs social functioning
Antisocial Personality Disorder - person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing
aggressive and ruthless even towards family
Dissociative Disorders - disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorder - rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternate personalities
Ariel could have this disorder because she bounces back and forth between a mermaid and a human (talk about identity issues)
Mood Disorders - characterized by emotional extremes
Major Depressive Disorder - two or more weeks of significant depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
just when someone is mopey all the time but they can't really escape it
could lead to suicide if not monitored
Mania - marked by hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
think Animaniacs
Bipolar Disorder - person alternates between hopelessness and depression then goes into a state of mania
happy one moment and crying the next
None are to be confused with overemotional teenage girls
Schizophrenia - group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Paranoid - preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity
Disorganized - disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
Catatonic - immobility or excessive, purposeless movement, extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements
Undifferentiated - many and varied symptoms
Residual - Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
Types of Therapy
Behavior Therapy - applies learning principles to elimination of unwanted behaviors
Family Therapy - therapy that treats family as a system
Client-Centered Therapy - use techniques such as active listening with genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients growth
Cognitive Thinking - teaches people new adaptive ways of thinking and acting
Psychoanalysis - patients free association, resistances, dreams, and transferences and the therapist's interpretations of them released repressed feelings allowing the patient to gain self-insight
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
Biomedical Therapy - prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on patients' nervous system
Exposure Therapy - behavioral techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people to things they fear and avoid
Counterconditioning - behavior therapy procedures that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors based on classical conditioning
learning to break a habit
Systematic Desensitization - counterconditioning; associates pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
commonly used to treat phobias
Aversive Conditioning - associated with unpleasant state with unwanted behavior
used to treat alcoholism

Physical Treatments
Psychosurgery - surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
rTMS - application or repeated pulses of magnetic energy to brain; used to stimulate or supress brain activity
ECT - biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of anesthetized patient
Lobotomy - procedure used to calm uncontrollably emotional and violent patients
Attribution Theory - suggests how we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
behaviors are determined by either internal or external situations
Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
actors who are usually evil like Loki are actually really kind in real life

Normative Social Influence - influence resulting from a person's desire to gain or avoid approval
don't act stupid in front of the "Populars" because they have the power to ruin your life
Informational Social Influence - influence resulting from a person's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
"Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than others love the truth." ~Joseph Joubert


Group Polarization - the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
coming to the same opinion through group consensus
Groupthink - mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Mean Girls

Aggression - any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
done out of hostility or intended to hurt immensely
Prejudice - unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members, involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action
to think that a fat person is fat because they eat a lot; based all on stereotypes
Discrimination - unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
the negative behavior brought on by prejudice; think how people treat each other based on race
Conflict - perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
war, cultural disputes, fighting over the last piece of pie
Social Trap - situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Cuban Missile Crisis and Cold War

Passionate Love - aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually in the beginning of a relationship
puppy love
Companionate Love - deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
soul mate


Reciprocity Norm - expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them in the past
Fire Fighters have a fish fry and you go support them because they have helped you out before
Social-Responsibility Norm - an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
helping your siblings through a rough time when you're the oldest because it's your job

Study Tips
Unit Exams
Don't freak out, they really aren't that bad, all you have to do is look over your notes, read through vocab flashcards that you make for each unit exam, and read through all the objectives in the text book
AP Exam
My advice is to treat it like another unit exam. Try to review with all your vocab flashcards that you've made the whole year long. Learning key terms will be extremely helpful. Also looking through diagrams of the physical aspects like brain structures. My advice is to also look into purchasing AP flashcards to sit and review for 30 minutes a day. Finally, go to all of Mr. Sander's review sessions, they will help, I promise.
Personal Advice
I believe something that will help future students is planning ahead and managing your time wisely. I know that if I did the studyguide vocab first, then I would be squared away for the whole chapter.
Study vocab daily and try to apply it. It may get annoying, but it helps immensely when applying them on a test.
Start studying for the AP Exam about two weeks ahead of time that way you have ample time to learn the material
As for things I had wished I'd knew, just that it was going to give me a whole new perspective on how the world works and more importantly how the people who inhabit the Earth work.
My final piece of advice: NEVER PROCRASTINATE!!!!!!
Mean - the mathematical average of a distribution, obtained by adding up all the scores then dividing by the number of scores
Mode - the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
Median - middle score in a distribution
Range - the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/nervoussystem/menu/menu.html
This website will help with learning the nervous system and all its parts along with any other of the body systems needed to help function that directly involve the brain
http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/brain/module1.htm
This website helps show the brain structures and gives their functions. It is helpful when review location and function of the different areas of the brain.
http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/
This website will explain what a personality test is and will give an example test to take along with the information.
http://bionicteaching.com/mouse-party-drug-animations/
This website helped me immensely when learning about drugs and their effects on the mind and body.
https://www.apa.org/
This website is the go-to for anything that you have trouble finding in the book and need more help understanding.

http://www.ar.cc.mn.us/biederman/courses/p1110/conditioning2.htm
This website will help with learning and practicing identifying the different factors of classical conditioning.
This video has a lot of information regarding the structure of the brain in the matter of about a minute and a half. This video would apply mainly to chapter two but it does mention neurons used in sensation and perception as well.
This video shows how Sheldon uses operant conditioning to get Penny to behave in a certain way by giving her chocolate for correct behavior.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201402/dreams-glory
This article is from the magazine Psychology Today and its main focus is on daydreaming. It talks about the focus of wants and desires growing up and how many people retreat into their own fantasies. This article explores the mental processes of daydreaming.
My Zone
The perfect embodiment of the ideal person to study for anything relating to psychology
http://www.veoh.com/watch/v976505DjnbzTzX?h1=Duck+Amuck-Daffy+DUck+LooneyTunes
By far, the best example of many of the psychological disorders, theories on emotion, speech, sensation, perception, nature vs. nurture conflict, learning, stereotypes, role playing, and perfect intelligence.
How I look at people who haven't taken psych
Suddenly everyone's got a psychological disoder
That awkward moment where cross country runners are the druggies in the school
By: Jenna Nosek
Full transcript