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Sarah Sinha

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of Biodiversity

Biodiversity Domains Eubacteria Eukaryotes Archaea Extreme Environments thermophiles halophiles Psychrophiles Methanogens Influence Humans Diseases lyme disease By Causing Such as By Producing Medicine Streptomycin Candidatus Chlorobacterium Hot Environments arthrobacter Cold Environments For example Which live in Methanobacterium bryantii For example Low Oxygen Environments Which live in Hot Springs For example The Arctic Oceans For example Swamps and Marshes For example For example Which live in and are called Highly Saline Environments Which live in The Dead Sea For example Halobellus clavatus For example Morphologies Cocci Bacilli Spirilla Diplo Staphylo Strepto Including Which can be In pairs Meaning In Clumps In Strings Meaning Meaning Has Eubacteria Which includes the kingdom Gonorrhea Such as Penicillin Which can Which are defined by Variablity in Shape and Size Prokaryotic Autotrophic or Heterotrophic Reproduce by Binary Fission their being being being able to involves including including Which may live in Which is defined by Ability to Live in Extreme Environments Prokaryotic Extremely Small their being being including Archaea Which includes the kingdom Protista Being Multicellular Which is defined by Membrane bound organelles in cells Which includes the kingdom Which has protists that are Animal Like (Protozoan) Plant Like Fungi Like Autotrophs Which are Euglena For example Who use Flagellum Photosynthesize For For Mobility Nutrition Which Who can Influence Humans Disease Malaria By causing Such as Photosynthesizing By Supplying Oxygen Animals Porifera -Multicellular -No distinct tissues or organs -No symmetry -Invertebrates -Sessile as adults Cnidaria -Multicellular Sponges -Radially Symmetrical Jellyfish -Invertebrates -Motile Platyhelminthes -Multicellular -Flatworms -Protostomes -Cephalizators Tapeworm, planaria, flukes Which are For example Which are For example Which are For example Rotifera -Multicellular -Bilaterally Symmetrical -Pseudocoelomates For example Rotifers Which are Nematoda -Multicellular -Invertebrates -Roundworms Evolutionary Milestone: Increasing complexity Digestive and Reproductive Systems -Bilaterally Symmetrical -Invertebrates Hookworm For example Which are Mollusca -Multicellular -Invertebrates Evolutionary Milestone:True Ceolem -Bilaterally Symmetrical -Protostomes -Motile
-Protostomes -Motile
-Protostomes -Motile For example Snails Annelida -Multicellular -Invertebrates -True Ceolem -Bilaterally Symmetrical Evolutionary Milestone: Segmentation -Circulatory Systems -Digestive System -Motile -Protostomes For example Earthworms, Which are Which have Arthropoda -Invertebrates -Bilaterally Symmetrical -Protostomes Evolutionary Milestone: Further Segmented -Exoskeleton -Motile -Nerve Cord -Gas Exchange organs -Circulatory System Which are Which have For example Which are the most successful Phylum because Spiders, Insects, Crustaceans Small Wide range of Habitats They are and can occupy a They can Fly and can Escape Predators They can Reproduce Quickly Increasing their Population Echinodermata -Multicellular -Invertebrates -Deuterostomes -Bilaterally Symmetrical (Larvae) -Radially Symmetrical as adults -Slow moving or Sessile Evolutionary Milestone: endoskeleton -Coelmates Which are For example Starfish Chordates -Multicellular -Internal Boney Skeleton -Spinal Column -Skull encased brain -Deuterostomes -Bilterally Symmetrical -Coelmates Which are For example Birds Agnathans Jawless Cartilage Skeleton Gills Marine or Freshwater External egg development and fertilization For example Lampreys Actinopterygii Boney Skeletons Swim Bladder Buoyancy External Fertilization Marine or Freshwater Trout For example have and a For and use for Reproduction and can be are and have a and and are and use Reproduction For Chondrichthyes Skeletons made of Cartilage Jaws, vertebrae and gills Internal fertilization Reproduction Marine have and have and use for and are usually For example Sharks Aquatic larval stage Tetrapods External fertilization Lungs and/or skin Reproduction usually have an and become and use for and breathe through Salamanders For example Amphibia Reptilia Terrestrial Tetrapods Lungs Internal fertilization Reproduction Amniotic eggs For example Lizards are usually and are and use and for and breathe with Tetrapods Wings Fly Feathers Endothermic Large Brains Acute vision Internal Fertilization Amniotic eggs Reproduction are with and can usually and have and are and have and and use and for Aves For example Robin Tetrapods Hair Nurse young Mammary glands Endothermic Large brains Acute Vision Sense of smell Internal Fertilization Give birth to young Reproduction are and have and are and have and and a and use for and and they using Mammalia For example Humans Lay eggs No placenta No true nipples Platypus Which and has and For example Feed through nipples in pouch Short lived placenta Kangaroo For example Finish development inside pouch Superior to Monotremes Young start development inside placenta whereas in Monotremes the offspring is developed in an egg are Pouched Mammals that and have that because Marsupials Monotremes are True Placenta True Nipples Fully develops in the placenta Filters waste Supply's nutrients which has Which and a and and the embryo Placental Superior to Marsupials Young develop entirely internally inside of placenta whereas for Marcupials, the embryo only develops partially internally are because - Evolutionary Milestone: Multicellularity -Evolutionary Milestone: tissues Evolutionary Milestone: Bilateral Symmetry -Coelomless Evolutionary Milestone: body Cavity Which are Which can be a Which can be Which can be Evolutionary Milestones: Chytridiomycota Swimming Spores Fungi Sessile Heterotrophs Absorption Nutrients Secreting Enzymes Externally Absorption Chitin Polysaccharide and Nitrogen Body Structure Hyphae Small filaments containing cytoplasm Mycelium Contained by chitin whos is made of which makes which is that is Cell walls has that is made of which is which are that use to obtain by then does which are which has Saprophytes single celled or multicellular Rhizophidium Zygomycota soil fungi commercially parasites of insects Rhizopus and are and are for example are usually and used and are for example Glomeromycota symbiotic relationships plant roots Geosiphon pyriformis for example with which forms Ascomycota plant disease useful to humans which cause but is Yeast Decomposers symbiotic realationships plants basidium a cube like structure that occurs in the diploid stage of the fungi's life cycle are that have with and is defined by which is for example Omphalina alpina can reproduce Sexually or Asexually By releasing spores which produce hyphae with haploid nuclei which fuse with other haploid hyphae producing cells with two nuclei dikaryotic cells called cells containing two nuclei which is Grows to produce mycelium mushroom cap with gills on its underside which grows into haploid nuclei in gills fuse to form zygote four new haploid nuclei four spores, cycle repeats which then the which produces which produces reproduce used to can reproduce through budding in which the nucleus divides and a septum forms between the two forming a daughter cell on the side of the original cell forming hyphae like arrangements as they often stay attached to each other Human Influence has disease because it causes such as athletes foot ringworm infections because it gives us food Such as Mushrooms such as amoeba and heterotrophic and have pseudopodium and reproduce asexually Bionary fission using one cell splits into two identical daughter cells which is when Sexually using conjugation which is when two cells attach to each other and exchange their genetic information which allows the protist to be motile Asexually using bionary fission one cell splits into two identical daughter cells Sexually using which is Conjugation two cells attach onto each other and exchange genetic information which is when which reproduce by which are unicellular Slime mould such as heterotrophic which are because they are saprophytic which means they feed off of dead animals and move using Flagella or pseudopods Basidiomycota and reproduce by starting as a sporphyte (organism that produces spores that are haploid) Spores are released and attach to a surface and divide, growing into a gametophyte (an organism that is haploid which produces sex cells) The gametophyte produces sperm and egg cells which will fuse into a sporophyte Alternation of generations this cycle is called then then Plants with no vascular tissue is called Bryophytes : the Mosses moving from water to land was positive because they had more light there was more Carbon Dioxide was negative because they had to Adapt For example Liverworts & hornworts which reproduce using with vascular tissue without seeds are called Lycophytes and Pterophytes Vascular Tissue Adapted with Xylem and Phloem which transport water and nutrients Lignin which makes cell walls rigid reproduces Sexually by that has seeds that are naked are called Gymnosperms which are plants that produce seeds in special structures called cones and have vascular tissues for example Spruce Trees Male cones produce pollen then release it, Females produce eggs which reproduce when then when the pollen and egg fuse inside of the female cone the embryo develops Adapted from water by Getting narrow leaves and thick cuticles to reduce water loss that are covered are called Angiosperms which are plants that produce flowers the female eggs are protected by an ovary and the male produces pollen, when the two meet they fertilize then seeds form inside the ovary and becomes a fruit, allowing the seeds to be dispersed by animals for example water lilies can Influence Humans Supplying Oxygen for survival by Providing food By Lettuce Carrots Such as Such as Which can Influence Humans By providing Food Such as Meat Which Humans can Influence Due to Pollution Due to Habitat Destruction Ferns and Horsetail For example Stomata Cuticle By getting a a waterproof, waxy layer on a plant which is by getting a Stoma which is an opening on a plants epidermis allowing gas exchange antherida (swimming sperm) and archegonia (sperm and egg producing structures on a gametophyte) therefore they can reproduce in wet conditions the new offspring grow off the archegonia on the female then offspring grow sporangium (tall stalks on which spores are produced) and spores are carried by wind and dispersed and and
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