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Fish

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Laura Edson

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of Fish

anatomy
HABITAT
Fish are aquatic animals, they live in almost every aquatic environment on earth.
they are found in fresh, salt, deep, shallow, warm, and cold waters.

Chapter 30: Fish
Classes Of fish
heart
bony fish have separate vertebrates composed of seperate segments.

(
swim bladder
)- a thin walled, internal sac found just below the backbone. it controls depth with the amount of gas in bladder.

bony fish have 2 chambered hearts :
- 1st (atrium) receives blood from tissue
- 2nd (ventricle) pumps the blood to the other organs.
Reproduction
Fish reproduce
sexually.
Fertilization and development is done
externally
in most fish.

Eggs and Sperm can be released through the water, or deposited in protected areas such as an aquatic plant.

Cartilaginous
fish have internal fertilization.



Most fish produce thousands of eggs at one time, but Hagfish produce small amounts of eggs

Superclass Agnatha
consists of two classes
-
Myxini
(hag fish)
-
Cephalaspidomorphi
(lampreys)

Fish are grouped into about
four classes
of the
Subphylum Vertebrata
.
Jawless fish belong to
Superclass Agnatha
(without jaws)

sensory & the nervous system
Fish Class cont..
fins
Fins are either composed of bony spines sticking out from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion as seen in most bony fish, or are similar to a flipper.
Fins

are primarily used for locomotion and stability.

gills
immune system
bladder
body
the body is divided into
head, trunk, and tail
.

there are 2 different skeletal types: exoskeleton (stable outer shell of organism), and endoskeleton (forms structure inside body)

the skeleton
is either made of
bones
, or
cartilage.
Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates.
bony fish
cartilaginous fish

bony fish also have a lateral line system, which is a sense organ used to detect movement & vibration in surrounding waters.
Most fish have relatively small brains.

Cerebellum-
The cerebellum is a prominent structure in the brain of fish, i
ndicating the importance of such functions as sensing pressure, maintaining balance, and regulating muscle movement.
(swim bladder
)- a thin walled, internal sac found just below the backbone. it controls depth with the amount of gas in bladder.
The
swim bladder
is l
ocated in the body cavity and is derived from an outpocket of the digestive tube.

In certain primitive fish it functions as a lung or respiratory aid instead of a hydrostatic organ.

In cartilaginous, bottom dwelling, and deep sea fish do not possess a swim bladder.
there are many different types of fins.
anal fin, pectoral fin, ventral fin,adipose fin, caudal keel, and finlets.
kidney & spleen
the kidneys are usually narrow and take up a good part of the trunk on fish.

the
kidneys
filter out impurities so that they can be excreted.

the spleen is a non-vital organ, it mainly filters blood. it regards to red blood cells & the immune system.
liver & stomach
the
liver
is a large vital organ, with a wide range of functions.
some of these
functions include detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.
not all fish have a stomach. some fish such as lampreys, don't need a stomach because their diet consists of food that needs little storage
intestines & pyloric
caeca
the intestines of fish of consist 2 segments; large & small. in bony fish the intestine is usually short, and commonly has (
pyloric caeca)

small pouch-like structures along the length, to digest food.

ovaries
:
female fish possess this, along with most vertebrates. the ovaries hold hundreds, or millions of fertile eggs. fresh eggs develop throughout the fishes lifetime.most female fish have two ovaries.

testicles
:
most male fish have two testes of similar size. sperm are produced in spherical structures (sperm ampullae), these are seasonal structures that release their contents during breeding season.
Fishes of the Superorder Ostariophysi possess a structure called the
Weberian apparatus
, a
modification which allow them (fish) to hear better.
the apparatus is made up of a small chain of bones that connect to the auditory system to the swim bladder.
Weberian Apparatus
Gills
: a
respiratory organ that extracts oxygen from water, and the discharge of carbon dioxide.
gills
are not commonly
visible.
immune organs very by different types of fish.
jaw less fish-the true lymphoid organs are absent.

fish rely on lymphoid tissue with other organs to produce immune cells.

the
immune system
is
divided into two parts:
protection from physical invasion, internal pathogen handling.
Heart
: pump that generates the driving pressure for circulation of blood.
the
spleen
is
used for red blood cell accumulation n the pancreas of the stomach.
The s
tomach

breaks down food.
Works cited
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_anatomy

http://esi.stanford.edu/circulation/circulation5.htm

Biology Book
Full transcript