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Transcript of Civil Rights
Civil Rights Movement
photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr
The Civil Rights Movement
The civil rights movement is one of the defining events in American history, providing a bracing example of Americans fighting for the ideals of justice and equality.
When you learn about the movement, you will learn what it means to be an active American citizen. You will learn how to recognize injustice and see that people can come together to stand against oppression.
Why it Matters...
Changes and challenges brought about by the Civil Rights movement are still with us.
Civil Rights legislation provides protection against discrimination for all citizens.
Economic programs for inner-city residents by government and social service agencies continue today.
The Impact Today
How did the Civil Rights Movement affect American culture and society then and now?
Unit Background Review:
What happened before Civil Rights?
Between the 1600s and 1800s some 14 million Africans were forcibly removed from mostly West Africa and transported to the new world. Only about half survive the barbarous trans-Atlantic voyage called the
. Once in America blacks were sold into slavery and subjected to white rule.
A slave who had been taken by his master into a free state (MN) but brought back to a slave state (MO) sued for his freedom on grounds that his residence in a free state had made him a free man. The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were
and could be brought from state to state “just like a chair or a mule.”
Dred Scott Decision (1857):
Civil War (1861-1865):
The issue of slavery was a major cause of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln had opposed the extension of slavery into the Union. Almost immediately after his taking office, seven Southern states seceded from the Union. In 1863 Lincoln issued the
freeing all slaves in Confederate states. Union armies began accepting blacks as soldiers.
Reconstruction Era (1865-1877)
The process of granting rights to former slaves after the Civil War:
13th Amendment: Abolished
14th Amendment: Granted
to former slaves, guaranteed all persons equal protection under the law.
15th Amendment: Gave blacks the right to
kept blacks from voting. This era also marks the birth of a secret white society that terrorized blacks known as the
were laws that regulated the economic and social lives of former slaves (could not serve on juries, testify against whites or marry a white).
Legally segregated blacks and whites in
. (railroads, restaurants, beaches and schools).
African American facilities were always inferior to whites.
Jim Crow Laws (late 1800s):
A black man denied a seat on a white railroad car sued the state of Louisiana which required
of railroad passengers. The Supreme Court ruled that
facilities are equal.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896):
400,000 blacks served in the segregated armed forces. 100,000 were sent to Europe. Blacks were barred from serving in the Marines and were given menial tasks in the Navy. Most served in the army.
WWI (U.S entry 1917-1918):
The center of cultural, artistic, literary and musical rebirth of African- American culture; a time known as the
Harlem, NYC (1920s):
Blacks were able to serve in the Army and Navy, but not the Air Force or Marines initially. Half a million blacks were sent overseas during the war. Blacks were kept segregated from white troops and generally given the worst jobs. At the end of the war in 1945, the US had defeated an enemy whose primary goal was to eliminate another race , but America was still treating blacks as second class citizens.
broke the color barrier in baseball. Truman orders the military and federal government to
WWII (U.S. entry 1941-1945):
What was the defining conflict of the 20th century?
The civil rights movement is about much more than just the fight for African-American rights in the 1950s and 1960s. The movement covers a multitude of social, ethnic, and religious groups and their fight for equal treatment under the law. In this project you will select a group or important issue of civil rights in America today and complete one of the culminating project options. You may do this in a small group (Maximum 4 students) or as an individual.
Civil Rights Culminating Project :
laws required segregation in public
and became very popular throughout the south. However, segregation existed in many other states as well, even those without formal laws passed. This was known as
de facto segregation
- segregation by custom and tradition.
The Civil Rights Movement in the United States used two major strategies to fight for equality and justice.
The U.S. court system: To change the laws.
The U.S. political system: to write new laws.
: To gain equality and justice using civil disobedience or symbolic protest.
Weapons of Choice:
Example of civil resistance used by civil rights groups to desegregate restaurants and other public facilities. Intended to shame the public into integration.
When someone is confronted with violence against nonviolence it is painfully clear who is in the right. This is why sit-ins were greatly effective.
Dr. King was a pastor who rose to civil rights leader during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. He advocated the use of nonviolent passive resistance. "We must use the weapon of love...we will soon wear you down by our capacity to suffer, and in winning our freedom we will so appeal to your heart and conscience that we will win you in the process."
Martin Luther King Jr.
A symbol of the black power movement, Malcolm X was a leader of the Nation of Islam. They believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites and make themselves economically self-sufficient. Black Muslims did not advocate violence, they did advocate self-defense. Later in life he would determine that an integrated society was possible after a trip to Mecca.
Influenced by the ideas of Malcolm X, this organization was founded in Oakland, California in 1966. The
Black Panther Party
for Self-Defense believed that a revolution was necessary in the United States, and they urged African Americans to arm themselves and confront white society in order to force whites to grant them equal rights.
Mixed groups of bus riders who traveled into the South to bring attention to the South's
to integrate bus terminals. It's one thing
the law. It is another to enforce the change.
The Freedom Riders:
The Selma March:
A "march of freedom" from Selma Alabama to the capitol in Montgomery to bring attention to the violent voter suppression tactics throughout the south. 2,000 African Americans were arrested including school children. Many were attacked and beaten and the story became national news.
The concept that African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle.
It was clear to Civil Rights leaders that it would be very difficult for civil rights legislation to get through congress. Therefore, he searched for a way to lobby congress and to build public support for a comprehensive civil rights bill. On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 demonstrators of all races went to the nations capital to call for equality for all Americans.
The March on Washington:
Most comprehensive civil rights law congress had ever enacted.
Gave Fed. power to prevent racial discrimination in a number of areas.
Made segregation illegal in most public places.
Gave citizens of all races and nationalities equal access to public facilities.
Gave the Fed. power to sue to force school desegregation and end discrimination in the workplace.
Civil Rights Act of 1964:
Allowed federal government to register voters instead of local state officials.
Suspended discriminatory devices such as literacy tests ad poll taxes.
Registered African Americans increased 250,000 in the first year.
100 elected officials in 1965.
5,000 in 1990.
Voting Rights Act 1965:
Despite the passage of several civil rights laws in the 1950s and 1960s,
- prejudice or discrimination toward someone because of his or he race - was still common in American society. Changing the law could not change people's attitudes immediately, nor could it help those africna Americans trapped in poverty in the nation's big cities.
was an effort to call attention to the deplorable housing conditions that may African Americans families faced in major U.S. cities. Dr. King and his wife moved into a slum apartment and began organizing marches through all white neighborhoods to demonstrate the need for open housing.
The Shift to Economic Rights:
By Bob Dylan
"The Death of Emmett Till"
What do you think of when you hear "civil rights"?
Why do civil rights need to be protected?
to which a person is entitled
because she or he is
: The right of all individuals to receive
equal treatment under the laws
of the United States. (To be free from unfair treatment or discrimination)
In groups you will read a primary source account of life in America for African Americans prior to the Civil Rights Movement.
After reading your groups assigned story answer the questions that pertain to that story on your note sheet.
Be prepared to summarize and retell the story to your peers!
What was the African American Experience in the Deep South Prior to the Civil Rights Movement?
Number of Lynchings:
Use this overview of the unit to complete your final definitions for each key term.
Be sure to write each definition in your own words!
Vocabulary Front Load:
Nonviolent Protests Continue....
In 1960 the Supreme Court declares segregation in interstate travel unconstitutional.
Freedom riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated south to test the United States Supreme Court ruling.
What was travel for African Americans in the deep south like during the Jim Crow era?
Dr. Joseph Holloway
University of California State - Northridge
Professor of Pan-African Studies
"This is not Los Angeles, this is the South and that's just the way things are here."--Uncle Gus, to his nephew, Joseph Holloway, in 1961.
Eyewitness to Jim Crow
Joseph Holloway Remembers
The Freedom Riders
Brown v. Board
Segregation in public schools violated the equal portection clause of the 14th amendment.
Threatend the entire system of segregation.
Court decision was not really enforced.
1964 85% of African Americans were still educated in segreg
Despite rulings outlawing segregation in interstate bus service, bus travel remained segregated in much
of the South
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of protest that involves occupying seats or sitting down on the floor of an establishment.
The Greensboro Four
Starting with just 4 students, a new mass movement for civil rights had begun. Within two months, sit-ins had spread to 54 cities in 9 state.
Sit-ins were staged at segregated stores, restaurants, hotels, movie theaters, and swimming pools.
In the fall of 1959 four students from the N.C. Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro, N.C. staged the first sit-in.
By the end of the week 300 students were participating.
In 1961 CORE leader James Farmer asked teams of African Americans and whites to travel into the South to draw attention to the South's refusal to integrate bus terminals. The teams beame known as Freedom Riders
Administrative assistant to Robert Kennedy.
During the Freedom Rides of 1961, Seigenthaler was sent to be chief negotiator for the federal government
She was the leader and strategist of the student wing of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement.
Her efforts included the first successful civil rights campaign to de-segregate lunch counters (Nashville) the Freedom riders, who de-segregated interstate travel.
In 1961 he joined SNCC, the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee and the Freedom Rides. He was 21 years old. John Lewis was one of the 13 original freedom riders.
U.S. Representative for Georgia's 5th congressional district, serving since 1987
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Seperate from NAACP and SCLC
: Research and design a Power Point or Prezi illustrating and explaining the history surrounding your chosen civil rights topic and its importance or relevance today.
: Research and write a 3-4 page double-spaced typed paper explaining the history of your chosen civil rights topic and its importance or relevance today. For INDIVIDUALS ONLY!
: Create an annotated timeline of at least 10 major events, people, or turning points for your chosen civil rights topic. An annotated timeline is a physical timeline you make using poster board, pictures, and other art supplies.
Poverty & Welfare
Health Care Rights
Native American Rights
Arab/Middle Eastern- American Rights
...WHY DO WE NEED CIVIL RIGHTS?
2. "The Death of Emmett Till" by Bob Dylan
3. Unit Intro
4. Pre-Civil Rights era in review.
5. Video: A Time for Justice
Many thought the Civil Rights Movement was moving to far too quickly.....MLK disagreed and outlined his ideas from his Birmingham jail cell.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE: The refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.
1. Read MLK letter and complete Civil Disobedience Sheet.
2. What was travel like in the deep South prior to Civil Rights?
3. Introduce the "Freedom Riders" and watch film.
A Time for Justice:
A Time for Justice (1992) was produced by Charles Guggenheim for the Southern Poverty Law Center. The film chronicles the story of the Civil Rights Movement.
Jimmie Lee Jackson:
Killed by state troopers during a voting rights demonstration in Marion, Alabama.
1. Civil Rights Vocab Chart
*Go to lab
*Civil Rights Prezi
*Fill in vocab chart
2. Why did African Americans want change?
3. Work time on Cornell Notes...
1. Turn in Plaques
*Staple Plaque to back of assignment sheet and set on center table
2. Power Point: Court Challenges
3. Freedom Riders: Video
European Ideas of Race
The “white man’s burden"
1492 – 1865 (ish)
Over 20 million people enslaved in the colonies and the United States
12 million came directly from Africa
America’s Racist Heritage
Farmer gets loans for food and necessities from owner
Farmer sells harvest for below value
Owner Loans Seed
Farmer only able to pay some debt
Farmer plants and works land
Cycle of Poverty
No political power
No economic power
The belief and practice of improving the genetic quality of the human population.
The strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak should see their wealth and power decrease.
African Americans in Congress:
Farmer Rents Land
Jim Crow Laws
The Jim Crow South
Films & Radio
Birth of a Nation (1915)
KKK as protectors
Amos & Andy
Racist Notions in Popular Culture:
Membership skyrockets and stays steady through the 1930’s
Federal Government does little to dismantle this group
Use of Terror – terrorist group
Enforcing the will of Jim Crow:
Causes Of Lynchings, 1882-1968
Lynching: Murder by mob or group of people.
Homicides 1,937 40.84
Felonious Assault 205 4.32
Rape 912 19.22
Attempted Rape 288 6.07
Robbery and Theft 232 4.89
Insult to White Person 85 1.79
All Other Causes 1,084 22.85
Total 4,743 100.00
Is Racism prevalent in America today?
What do you think is the message of that commercial?
What do these comments tell us about some Americans?
Where does prejudice, racism, and discrimination come from?
On the back of your 1/2 sheets write the following questions:
Blue Eyed vs