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Mammals

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Nicole B.

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Mammals

Mammals
Presentation by Nicole Bourne
What do all these animals have in common?
Class Mammalia
Main Features
ALL Mammals have
HAIR
and ALL FEMALE MAMMELS have

MAMMARY GLANDS

The Mammary glands: produce milk to nourish young.
More Characteristics
Mammals:
Breathe Air

Have
4
chambered hearts

Are Endotherms
(They generate their body heat internally)
Mammalian Fossils
Evolution
Mammels appear in the fossil record.
Characteristics used to identify mammalian fossils:
A
lower jaw
consisting of a large bone. This bone is connected directly to the skull by a joint.
Limbs
(bones)
Backbone
Teeth
Evolution
Descended from
ancient reptiles
The first mammals appeared
220 million
years ago (in the late Triassic Period)
These first mammals were very small, and nocturnal.
After the disappearance of the dinosaurs, mammals underwent a burst of
Adaptive radiation
.
Became larger

Occupied new niches

Evolved into three major groups:
Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placental mammals
Forms and Functions
Mammals can control their body temperature.
Endotherm: an organism that can
generate heat internally
How are they able to do this?
Have a high
metabolic rate
(high metabolism)
This helps them generate their body heat.
External body hair keeps them warm
They have
Subcutaneous Fat
- a layer of fat beneath the skin that helps conserve body heat
Keepin' Cool
Sweat glands
help cool the body
Those who do not have sweat glands, Pant. Panting helps release heat from the body.
Homeostasis
The process by which organisms
maintain a stable environment
The ability of mammals to regulate their body heat is an example of Homeostasis.
Forms and Functions
Feeding
Feeding
FEEDING
Mammals can be:
Herbivores:
Eat plants
Carnivores
: Eat meat (other animals)

Omnivores
: Eat a mixture of meat and plants

Filter Feeders:
Sift food particles out of water/soil
Mammals have specialized teeth depending on their type of diet.
ALL MAMMALS:
Have
incisors, canines, molars,
and
premolars
The specialized teeth for the specific type of diet enables the food to be processed more efficiently.

= More
ENERGY
for the mammal


Teeth of Herbivores vs. Carnivores
Herbivores:
Have flat-edged incisors for grasping/tearing vegetation, flattened molars to grind food. Canines are absent or reduced.
Carnivores:
Have sharp canines and incisors to grip and tear flesh from their prey. their molars interlock during chewing, and function like scissor blades.
Digestive Tract
Carnivores
Herbivores
Have
shorter
intestine than herbivores
The digestive enzymes found in the intestine can break down meat faster than plant material.
Have specialized digestive organs to break down plant matter....
Rumen
- Stores and processes food. (Found in Cows and their relatives)
Forms and Functions
RESPIRATION
ALL mammels have
LUNGS
to breathe
Digestive Tract of a Cow.
THE LUNGS
Controlled by 2 sets of muscles: The
Chest muscles
and the
Diaphragm
Inhaling
Exhaling
The chest muscles lift ribcage
"up and outward"
Diaphragm pulls bottom of chest cavity downward -
volume of chest cavity increases
Air is pulled into lungs
Chest muscles
lower
Diaphragm relaxes - volume of chest cavity decreases
Air is pushed out of the lungs
Forms and Functions
CIRCULATION
Forms and Functions
EXCRETION
Forms and Functions
RESPONSE
Forms and Functions
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
Forms and Functions
FIGHTING SICKNESS
MOVEMENT
REPRODUCTION
ORGAN SYSTEMS
TYPES OF MAMMALS
BIOGEOGRAPHY
ECOLOGY OF MAMMALS
The circulatory system
TRANSPORTS MATERIALS
(such as oxygen) throughout the body of a mammal.


A Mammal's circulatory system is composed of a
four chambered heart
and two separate loops.
One to and from the lungs
One to and from the rest of the body
RIGHT SIDE OF HEART
Receives
de-oxygenated
blood from the body, pumps it to the lungs
LEFT SIDE OF HEART
Receives re-oxygenated blood from
the lungs
and pumps it to the rest of the body
Mammals have
KIDNEYS
to control the composition of their body fluids.
Filter
urea
from blood
Excrete
excess
water
Retain
needed
water
Retain necessary salts, sugars and other compounds
KIDNEYS:
How Excretion Takes Place
Urea
, other
wastes
, and
excess water
, combine to form urine
Urine flows to the
Urinary Bladder
The urine exits the body
Kidneys allow mammals to live in many environments, as they stabilize the amount of water in the body.
Mammals have the most
HIGHLY DEVELOPED BRAIN
of any animal.
The Brain is made up of 3 parts:
Cerebrum

Controls thinking and learning
Cerebellum
Controls muscular coordination.
Medulla
Controls involuntary functions
Cerebral Cortex
This is the outer layer of the cerebrum.
It is the center of
thinking and complex behaviors

SENSES
Mammals rely on their highly-developed senses to
detect
and
respond to stimuli
from their external environment.
Many have well-developed
hearing
and senses of
smell.
(ex. Dogs)
These mammals can detect sounds at higher frequencies than humans can.
Have colour-sensing structures in their eyes
The ability to distinguish colour varies among species. Some species may not see the full range of colours. (ex. Bulls - they have dichromatic vision)

Mammals have an endocrine system that contains
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
The endocrine glands:

regulate body activities
by releasing hormones that effect other organs/tissues
Ex. Some may regulate the amount of calcium in the bones
Endocrine System
Mammals have an
IMMUNE SYSTEM
which works to protect the mammals from sickness and disease.
The Immune system:
Contains
barriers
which prevent pathogens from entering the body (ex. the skin)
Has
specialized cells
and chemicals that recognized and destroy pathogens
Mammals have a variety of
ADAPTATIONS
that assist in movement.
A flexible
Backbone
that

can move vertically and side-to-side.
Streamlined, flexible
Shoulder
and
Pelvic girdles
- they allow the hind limbs to move in a variety of ways.

Mammals have different ways of moving:
They run, walk, swim, climb, hop, pounce, burrow, etc.
Due to this,mammals have variations in their
limb bones and muscles
.
EXAMPLES:
Horse (Running Animal)
Monkey (Climber)
A Horse:
Has long limbs to
absorb shock

A singular toe on each foot, called a hoof
A Monkey:
Has long and flexible
fingers and toes
for grasping branches

A flexible wrist joint
Mammals have
INTERDEPENDENT
organ systems
The systems work together to meet the needs of the body as a whole.
Some of the Systems:
Circulatory
Respiratory
Excretory

Skeletal
Nervous
Endocrine
Mammals use
INTERNAL FERTILIZATION.
The male deposits sperm inside the female's reproductive tract. This is where fertilization occurs.
Newborn mammals generally need care after birth, and for a long time after.
Parental/Maternal Care
Newborn Mammals:
Feed on their mother's
milk.
This gives them necessary
nourishment.
Are cared for by one or both parents - it depends on the species
Parental care ensures that young animals will
survive and reproduce
, and it teaches the youngster the
behaviors needed for survival.
Duration of the care depends on the species. It could be a few days to a couple of months.
Group Living
Young mammals may be cared for by adults other than their parents.
Group Living gives the young mammals the opportunity for
complex

social interaction among the adults and juveniles.
Mammals are classified into three groups depending on their modes of development and birth.
Monotremes, Marsupials,
and
Placental Mammals
Dolphin Intelligence
Monotremes
Ex. duckbill platypus, Spiny anteater
Means "single opening"
These are mammals that
LAY EGGS.
Females lay soft shelled eggs that are incubated
outside
the body
Eggs hatch within 10 days
Newborns are nourished by their mother's milk - they lick pores on the surface of her abdomen.
FACT:
The digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems, of monotremes open into a
cloaca
(similar to that of reptiles)
Marsupials
Ex. Kangaroos, Koalas
Marsupials bare
LIVE YOUNG
, but in a very
EARLY STAGE
of development.
After fertilization, the egg develops into an embryo inside the female
Embryo is born early in development
After birth, the embryo attaches to one of its mother's nipples, located in a pouch called the
marsupium
(outside the mother's body)
Embryo grows/develops in the mother's pouch until
it is large enough to survive on its own.
Placental Mammals
Ex. Dogs, Cats, Humans
Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between the embryo and mother through the
PLACENTA.
The Placenta - an internal structure formed when the embryo's tissues

join
with the mother's tissues
Embryo develops for a much longer time inside the mother
After birth, placental mammals care for their young (can be for a few weeks to a few years)
Young receive nourishment by
nursing
CONTINENTAL DRIFT
caused the ancestors of mammal groups to become
ISOLATED
from each other.
So, each landmass had a unique range of mammal groups living on it.
Similar environments/ecological opportunities have led to
convergent evolution
in different organisms

Since then
Henceforth.....
In different parts of the world, thousands of kilometers apart, mammals have
similar adaptations
in form and function.
Mammals can be found in all parts of the world, on
EVERY CONTINENT
and in
THE OCEAN.
Africa
- lions. zebras, elephants
North America
- Beaver, cougar
Asia
- orangutan, golden jackel
Europe
- crested porcupine, Persian leopard
South America
- Tapir, Jaguar
Australia
- Kangaroo, koala
Antarctica
- Leopard seal, humpback whale
ECOLOGY
Mammals:
Provide a food source for other mammals
Humans eat cows and pigs, etc
Wolves eat rabbits/deer
Some hibernate for the winter (in cold places)
ex. Woodchucks, bats
This involves lowering body temperature, and slowing breathing to about 1% of an active individual. This slows circulation.
Are used in medical studies
Vaccines and treatment are tested on mammals such as rats or bunnies.
Many mammal species are endangered due to changing environmental conditions and human invasion (habitat destruction)
ECOLOGY
Some migrate long distances.....
THE END!
Full transcript