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US History: Chapter 1: Section 5-Transatlantic Encounters
Transcript of US History: Chapter 1: Section 5-Transatlantic Encounters
Columbus Crosses the Atlantic
August 3, 1492- Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria left Spain in search of unknown
October 12, 1492- lookout on Pinta spotted white sand- Tierra! Tierra!
First encountered the Taino- "noble ones". Very friendly with no weapons for battle.
Columbus renamed island San Salvador & claimed it for Spain
- Quote on page 27- future of Taino
Gold, Land, & Religion
The search for gold one of main reasons for Columbus's journey.
Did not find any gold on island of San Salvador so he looked elsewhere.
Spent 96 days scouring small islands for gold. Searched the Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, & Haiti
Gave lands Spanish names and placed crosses everywhere he went
January 1493- Columbus & crew headed back to Spain
Believed they landed in islands of Asia, known as the Indies, they named the people they encountered "los indios" or Indians.
Columbus's findings excited Spanish monarchs- sent more explorers to region.
September 1493- Columbus commanded fleet of 17 ships, & hundreds of armed soldiers back to San Salvador
Impact on Native Americans
Colonization- establishment of distant settlements controlled by parent country- established long before Columbus.
Europeans learned advantages of plantation system & economic benefits of forced labor. Also, used European weapons to dominate those with lesser weapons- all used against Indians
Indians fought back using poison arrows, but no match for Columbus & crew
European settlers brought measles, mumps, chicken pox, small pox- Native Americans had no immunity
- 1/3 of population died during Columbus's time
-1508- less than 100k left
- 1560's- only two villages remained
The Slave Trade Begins
Disease reduced number of natives able to work so they turned to Africa for slaves. More than 12 million would come over in coming years
African slaves seen as more valuable & useful than native slaves.
Slave trade became so large, became an essential part of European-American economic system.
Impact on Europeans
Columbus's voyages opened eyes of merchants & monarchs to make money
Ordinary folk saw chance to live in a new world
New plants & animals were sent back from Americas to Europe & Africa. Items were also brought from Eastern Hemisphere to Western Hemisphere. Transfer of living things known as Columbian exchange