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What is History Prezi

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Mark Giansanti

on 18 January 2015

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Transcript of What is History Prezi

UNDERSTANDING HISTORY
Historical
Evidence

Non-Written Sources
Fossils
Artifacts
Ruins
Oral Tradition
Examining Sources
Archaeological Evidence
a. Formation
b. Excavation
c. Dating
Cultural Dating: Comparing artifacts with existing information to date newly discovered objects.
Scientific Dating: Objects are analyzed and dated in a laboratory.
Relative Dating: Determining whether an object is older or newer than other objects.
Absolute Dating: The specific age of an object, in years, is determined.

Interpretation
1. Placing discovery within existing body of evidence.
2. Modifying existing views based upon new finds.
Interpreting Sources
Evidence
a. Written accounts can give details about human interactions.
b. Archaeological records may provide information about “international” contacts.
new foods
new technologies
new designs / artistic styles
Learning to Farm
The Advantages of Agricultural Production
Raise more food than hunter-gatherers.
Support more people on less land.
Move into fertile regions that did not contain wild food sources.
Start and maintain a food surplus.
Support a diversified labor pool.
Technological improvement
> Agriculture begins during the Neolithic (NEW STONE) Era.
> c. 8,000-5,000 BCE in the Middle East
> Named because people used newer, more efficient stone tools.

With agriculture other changes follow:
1. Villages are created.
2. Pottery invented.
3. Weaving / cloth invented.
4. Basket weaving created.
5. Metal working started towards end of the era. First copper then bronze (first alloy).
Diversified Labor Force
With greater food production not everyone needed to raise food.
Other activities that were useful for the group were developed and refined.
Other occupations were created.
Written Sources
Journals
Periodicals
Official Documents
Artistic Creations
Literature
Diagrams / Plans
Evaluating Sources
1. Time of Origin
a. Primary
b. Secondary
2. The Historians’ Questions
a. Who created the source?
b. What kind of source is it?
c. When was the source produced?
d. Where was the source produced?
e. Why was the source produced?
Cultural Contact
>Acquainted Cultures
Trade
War
Migration
>Cultural Diffusion
Exchange of goods &/or ideas.
The following may have been transmitted through cultural diffusion.
Writing
Building Techniques
Domestication of Plants and Animals
Irrigation Techniques
>Independent Invention
Creation of similar ideas / technologies without cultural diffusion.
Similar problems lead to similar solutions.
THE CREATION
AND
GROWTH OF CITIES
All cities, ancient or modern, have certain common characteristics / features.
Long / Short Distance Trade
a. Raw materials and finished goods were traded.
b. Trade was used to make up resource
deficiencies and to bring in luxury items.
Organized Structure / Leadership and Planning
a. Political
b. Military
c. Economic / Agricultural / Industrial
d. Religious
e. Architectural
Specialized / Diversified Labor Force
a. Industrial
b. Agricultural
c. Merchant
d. Legal
e. Medical
f. Religious
Differentiated Social Levels
Began simply and became more complex over time.
> Upper Level: Officials, Priests, Generals
> Middle Level: Merchants, Skilled Laborers, Farmers
> Lowest Level: Indentured Servants, Slaves
The first civilizations started with the development of urban environments.

Stone Age villages gradually grew into more complex, and populous, cities.
EARLY FARMING SOCIETIES




IMPROVED FARMING METHODS




SURPLUS






Population

Permanent

Specialization

Growth

Settlements

of Labor
CITIES
The Babylonian Empire
A. Hammurabi (c. 1792-1750 BCE) expands control through force and diplomacy.
B. Expands south to Uruk and north into Assyria. Eventually rules all of Mesopotamia.
C. Created the first set of written laws known.
D. Called the Code of Hammurabi the laws were:
To cause justice to prevail in the country
To destroy the wicked and the evil,
That the strong may not oppress the weak.
E. The code covers all aspects of Babylonian life.
F. It lists offenses and punishments.
> Punishments are based on social status.
G. Protects women and children from unfair treatment.
H. Professionals had standards of behavior and competence to maintain.
I. Unique in that physical punishment added to monetary payment.
In order to do exist, farming techniques had to consistently produce food surpluses.
Specialized, non-agricultural occupations provided the other needs required for survival.
The invention of writing was crucial for a civilization to record and expand knowledge.
Organized governments that directed large scale building projects evolved.
What is CIVILIZATION?
Cities needed certain supporting developments and skills.
What defines a



CIVILIZATION?
1. Cities
2. Reliable Food Supply
3. Specialized Labor
4. Stable Government
5. Social Levels
A. Art
B. Monumental Architecture
C. Religion
D. Music / Entertainment
E. Law / Legal System
F. Writing System
G. Social Code
6. A Distinct Culture that includes:
The Fertile Crescent
1. Stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.
2. Includes parts of modern day:
Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey and Iraq.
3. Eastern part of the area is Mesopotamia.
4.This low plain bordered by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
These rivers do not provide a regular supply of water.

No rain falls and the plain is dry.
Fall planting coincided with water shortages.
Spring harvests saw the rivers nearly flooding or flooding.
Dams and channels were built to control the seasonal floods.
Canals and ditches brought water to the fields.
By 4000 BCE early irrigation systems allowed Mesopotamian farmers to produce food in abundance.
The Sumerian Civilization
By 3000 BCE, major city-states are found in the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
A city-state consisted of a city and the lands needed to support it.
Populations ranged from 20,000 to 250,000.
The Sumerians shared a:
common culture
language
religion
They did not consider
themselves a single nation.
The Sumerians are credited with various technological achievements such as.
Wheel Boats Potter’s Wheel Sundial Arithmetic and Geometry
Number system based on 60 Lunar calendar Bronze Writing
A
N
C
I
E
N
T

GEOGRAPHY
A. Black Land and Red Land
1. Rich, fertile valley soil = black land.
2. Surrounding desert = red land.
B. The Nile is 4,160 miles in length = world’s longest river.
C. East African sources feed the Nile.
D. Six cataracts (waterfalls) make navigation difficult until the last 650 miles.
E. The Nile forms a marshy, fan-shaped delta just before it reaches the Mediterranean Sea.
F. Little effort needed to make the Nile floodplain agriculturally productive.
1. Flooding due to rains and melting snow provides silt and water for crops.
G. Egypt’s geographic position limited outside contacts and allows Egypt to:
1. be self-sufficient
2. focus on culture and society
3. avoid the upheavals/invasions/wars common in Mesopotamia
Time Periods and Achievements:
Egyptian history is divided into 31 dynasties broken into four eras.
pre- and early dynastic Egypt c. 3150-2270 BC
The Old Kingdom c. 2770-2200 BC
The Middle Kingdom c. 2050-1786 BC
The New Kingdom c. 1560-1087 BC
Intermediate periods are the names given to periods of unrest or conquest between the eras.
The Middle Kingdom
A. Loss of power by the kings faced with ambitious
nobles created instability in Egypt.
B. By 2050 a new dynasty assumes control.
C. A new capital is created at Thebes.
D. Egyptian territory expanded through military conquest.
E. A canal was created connecting the Nile and Red Sea.
F. Towards the end of the period local rulers begin to
challenge the kings’ authority.
G. Power does not go to the nobles.
Hyksos invaders, using iron weapons and
horse-drawn chariots, conquer Egypt.
H. Hykosians rule for c. 110 years.
Earliest Developments:
A. Earliest settlements appear on the western edge of the Nile delta c. 4000 BCE.
B. By c.3200 BCE Upper Egypt had:
political unity and a high level of culture.
obtained/adapted Mesopotamian art and architectural methods.
developed a pictographic script
C. Approximately 3150 BCE: King Narmer (Menes) conquers Lower Egypt.
D. For the next 2500 years Egypt enjoys the most stable civilization in history.
E G Y P T
The Old Kingdom
A. Egypt's first, strong central government develops.
B. The monarchy becomes a theocracy.
C. The king wields absolute power.
D. A bureaucracy oversaw day-to-day operations.
E. Massive construction projects were carried out.
The Pyramids
The first pyramid (a step pyramid) was built for King Zoser
Designed by Imhotep who later is deified.
The New Kingdom
A. c.1600 BC Ahmose (an Egyptian prince) raises an army and using Hyksosian technology and tactics drives them out of Egypt.
B. Ahmose and his successors assume the title of pharaoh.
C. Ahmose embarks on an ambitious rebuilding project. This includes:
1. rebuilding temples
2. reopening avenues of trade
3. repairing the infrastructure
D. Following pharaohs use large armies to expand east and south.
E. The Egyptian Empire grew wealthy from commerce and tribute. Egyptians also were influenced through cultural diffusion.
F. During the 1300s BC Egypt went into decline as an imperial power. This was temporarily halted during the 1200s.
G. In the 1100s BC a long period of decline further weakened Egypt.
H. By 945 BC came under the control of foreigners.
Contributions of the Egyptians
A. Unique view of the afterlife.
B. Calendar of 360 days +5 yearly days: Days were divided into two 12 hour periods.
C. Stone architecture: the development of the column and clerestory.
D. Medical Knowledge
E. Papyrus / paper
F. Glass making
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