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US Studies - History of Slavery

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Dave Gagne

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of US Studies - History of Slavery

Cotton Gin Invented
Eli Whitney's machine will make picking cotton less work.
Less need for slaves, right?
The cotton gin was
but it made it possible for plantations to grow MORE cotton, thereby actually INCREASING the need for slaves.
Remember the early 1600s, when the

in Virginia wasn't doing well?
The History of

in the United States
U.S. History
Mr. Gagne
That is, until John Rolfe showed up with...
that grew the first
successful crop for
the European colonies.
tobacco seeds

This painting depicts the first African slaves arriving in Virginia to pick tobacco.
1619 - Virginia
And when tobacco gets popular, how do you pick it all?
1624 - New Amsterdam (eventually New York City, right?)
The first slaves arrive to help build the Dutch colony.
This diagram shows the
of how slaves were packed
into slave ships to cross the
Atlantic Ocean
And if that seems bad, look at it this way...
Remember: this journey lasted between
40 and 150 DAYS!
John Punch, a runaway black servant, is sentenced to
servitude for life
. His two white companions are given extended terms of servitude.
- Massachusetts is the
first colony to legalize slavery.

- A
Virginia court grants blacks the right to hold slaves.

1662 - Virginia enacts a law of hereditary slavery meaning that a child born to an enslaved mother inherits her slave status.


- More

colonies legalize slavery. Maryland law
requires life-long service
for a
ll black slaves. Other states follow, such as NY, NJ, the Carolinas, and Virginia.

1670 - The

te of Virginia prohibits free blacks and Indians from keeping Christian (i.e. white) servants.
Slavery Spreads Through the New Colonies
African slaves faced a long journey to the Caribbean islands or the American colonies.
Slaves on the journey across the Atlantic Ocean
Tobacco isn't the only labor intensive crop in the Americas.
1694 - Rice cultivation is introduced into South Carolina. Slave importation increases dramatically.
Rice is a crop that is
grown in Africa.

In horrible irony, Africans
contributed their own
knowledge to the success
of the rice crop.

Remember, another
successful crop increases
the need for cheap labor.
1705 - The Virginia Slave Code defines who is a slave and
defines slaves as real estate.
July 4, 1776 (remember that date?)
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created equal
, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."
The new country claims equality for all. Is it true?
The South gets more representatives in Congress under the 3/5 Compromise
More events in the history of American slavery:
What do all of these
locations have in
common and why?
Stop and Think:
any guesses?
Stop and Think:
What kind of transformation is this?

What kind of transformations are these?
Stop and Think:
Punch is the first documented slave for life.
(in America)
Stop and Think:
What is the effect
of this change?
It results in plantation owners buying and selling people based on their business value. And yes, that includes children (future workers). All could be found on the auction block.
Stop and Think:
So, does the Constitution...
(which sets up the government of the U.S.)
...grant those rights of equality?
Simply put, NO, it didn't.
Remember our word '
Each side gives something up to
reach an agreement
Stop and Think:
What type of transformation does this sound like?
Would this be considered a political reform?
(remember reform means
House of Representatives
Each state gets Representatives based on its population
The more citizens you have, the more Reps you get
Southern states claim slaves as citizens,

but does not tax them as citizens
Northern states argue that you can't count slaves if you they aren't free

and you aren't going to tax them
3/5 th Compromise
means every
5 slaves will count as 3 citizens
The Northwest Ordinance declared that the Northwest Territory would remain slavery-free. This set the precedent of free states in the North.
The Constitution declared all importation of slaves would end by 1808
By 1808, southern slave states had a more sinister system in place.

You see, the way to determine whether or not you were a slave had been put into state laws, and it was simple:
If your mother was a slave, then you were a slave.

They no longer needed to bring new slaves from Africa. The slaves in the United States of America were
making their own replacements
, and the population of black slaves soared.
What is that
word that keeps
popping up?
What is that
word that keeps
popping up?
Yeah, that's it.
Do you remember the
Compromise of 1820
from your exploration of how the states were added?
Slave states
non-slave states
each wanted to control of the U.S. Senate. More importantly, they didn't want the other side to gain control. A balance was essential to preventing the other side from winning, but did it help to solve the issue of slavery?
Here is how the U.S. looked after
was added as a
free state
was added as a
slave state
1831 - Nat Turner, an enslaved African American preacher, leads the
most significant slave uprising
in American history.

He and his band of followers launch a short, bloody, rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. The militia quells the rebellion, and Turner is eventually hanged.

As a consequence, Virginia institutes much stricter slave laws.
Slaves Fight Back
Stop and Think:
What challenges made it hard for slaves to fight back?
What are some other ways that slaves resisted their owners?
Also in 1831: William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing
The Liberator
, a weekly paper that advocates the
complete abolition of slavery
. He becomes one of the most famous figures in the
Two Harriets
Two ladies named Harriet were important figures in the abolitionist movement (the fight against slavery). They led very different lives.
Harriet Tubman
escapes from slavery and becomes one of the most effective and celebrated leaders of the
Underground Railroad.
Harriet Beecher Stowe

writes a novel,
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
It becomes one of the most influential works to stir anti-slavery sentiments.
Underground Railroad
is the nickname given to the system of secret escape routes and hiding places used to guide escaping slaves to safety in the north, often in Canada.

was a white woman from Connecticut. She and her husband supported the
Underground Railroad
, even hiding slaves in their home. She was so angry about the
Fugitive Slave Law
, that she wrote a book to show the cruelty of slavery to a northern population not aware of the grisly details.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
forced people in the North, where slavery was illegal, to return escaped slaves looking for freedom to their Southern owners.

Remember that slaves were considered property, and escaping slaves were treated as stolen property, but in this case, it was the property that was stealing itself.
A fugitive slave poster in
Boston, Mass., far in the North
A typical auction announcement
And...in 1850,
the U.S. takes
one more
stab at...
This map shows popular routes of the
Underground Railroad.
Slaves were ushered through a series of secret basements and hidden areas, traveling mostly at night.

As a border state to Canada, Maine had its share of stations, including Portland, Augusta, and neighboring Gardiner.
wrote her influential book while living near
Bowdoin College
Brunswick, Maine
In Africa, some tribes would sell their prisoners from rival tribes to European slave traders.
are both trying to add more states on their side.

A victory in the Mexican War has won much of the land that makes up the southwest U.S. Once more into compromise mode.
The Compromise of 1850
The continuing debate whether territory gained in the Mexican War should be open to slavery is decided in the Compromise of 1850: California is admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico territories are left to be decided by popular sovereignty, and the slave trade in Washington, DC is prohibited. It also establishes a much stricter fugitive slave law than the original, passed in 1793.
Stop and Think:
So, who gets what this time:
California enters as a free state and gains a majority in the U.S. Senate
Utah and New Mexico territories expected to be free states
Slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.
Fugitive Slave Law made more strict - runaways must be returned to South
Texas reduced to modern borders, but compensated with $10 million
The Compromise saw popular support when it passed.
Opposition grew in the North when the details of the Fugitive Slave Law went into effect.
"Bleeding Kansas"
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
The act established Kansas and Nebraska as territories. It repealed the Missouri Compromise. Allowing the territories to vote on slavery invited settlers from each side to head to the territories, causing outbreaks of violence.
The abolitionist fighter John Brown makes his first appearance and is involved in the battles.
Dred Scott
Scott sued for his freedom while he was living in Illinois and Wisconsin territories, where slavery was not legal. While he normally lived in Missouri, his master brought him to these states when reassigned to a different location.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that states have the right to decide slavery for themselves.
The decision angered abolitionists.
It even helped inspire a young
Illinois lawyer to run for President in 1860.
Does this man look crazy?
Abolitionist John Brown
To the North he was:
A fervent fighter against slavery
A martyr willing to give his life for the cause of freedom
In 1859, he led a force of 21 that attacked a federal arsenal (weapons storage) at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His goal, to arm local slaves and start a massive armed slave revolt. The foolish attack failed, and Brown was hanged for the crime.
A terrorist willing to use violence
A sign that remaining in the Union would mean the end of slavery
To the South he was:
After his battles in Kansas, Brown (now without the beard) grew frustrated with the lack of progress in the battle against slavery. His plans turned more militant in Missouri.
The American Civil War
The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was the final straw for the South.

In the spring of 1861, before Lincoln is sworn into office, South Carolina will secede from (leave) the United States. The opening shots of the Civil War are fired there.

Slavery is not the only cause of the Civil War, but it is the primary issue. The victory of the North in 1865 will bring the end of slavery, but the battle for equality will continue for more than 100 years.
"Slavery is stupid and mean!"
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